First time flu infection may affect lifetime immunity
Conclusion This modelling study shows how the strains of influenza A – "bird flu" – circulating when a person is born give them lifelong protection against new subtypes with the same H protein groups. The researchers call this immune imprinting. This may help to explain the high severity and mortality rate seen among certain groups. For example, the massive flu pandemic of 1918 was an H1N1 strain. This had a very high fatality rate among young adults, which the researchers consider may have been because when they were born (between 1880 and 1900), H3 was the dominant strain. Therefore they had no protection when encountering H1. However, elderly adults of the same generation did have protection when H3 peaked in 1968. These observations, however, aren't really too unexpected. It's already well known that the flu virus has many different strains; which is why people catch flu several times in their life, and why it's difficult to say the flu vaccine will definitely stop you catching flu (vaccines only cover the strain expected to be circulating that season). We also know that exposure to a specific virus gives us protection against the same if we encounter it again. So in that sense this isn't really "news" as such. Nevertheless, as the researchers say, their findings could help in planning for future flu outbreaks, in knowing which age groups may be most at risk. Though these are only modelling estimates so it's difficult to give certain answer...
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The start of the new school year is already proving that there is no one way to reopen schools during the Covid-19 pandemic and returning to classes does not mean anything close to returning to normal.
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A third US company has released study results showing its coronavirus vaccine is safe and elicits an immune response.
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Information for prisons and other prescribed places of detention on coronavirus (COVID-19). Recent updates: 4th August 2020 - added COVID-19 guidance for prisons and places of detention poster. 31st July 2020 - changed isolation period from 7 to 10 days.
Advice and information on how to look after your mental health and wellbeing during the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Update in this version (published 4th August 2020) - added translated documents in Arabic, Bengali, Chinese CN, Chinese HK, French, Gujarati, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi and Urdu.
Recent updates: 4th August 2020 - updated to reflect the extension of self-isolation from 7 to 10 days. 30th July 2020 - updated link to information on local restrictions.
This is advice for parents and carers on looking after the mental health and wellbeing of children or young people during the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Update in this version (published 4th August 2020) - added translated documents in: Arabic, Bengali, Chinese CN, Chinese HK, French, Gujarati, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi and Urdu.
Vaccine development normally takes years, if not decades. But scientific teams around the world are aiming to develop a COVID-19 vaccine in 12 to 18 months. Here’s how they’re speeding up the process and why they think a vaccine produced this fast will be just as safe as any other.
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