Accurate quantification of vessel cross-sectional area using CT angiography: a simulation study

AbstractCoronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is a noninvasive method for visualizing coronary atherosclerosis. However, CT angiography is limited in assessment of stenosis severity by the partial volume effect and calcification. Therefore, a quantitative method for assessment of stenosis severity is needed. Polyenergetic fan beam CT simulations were performed to match the geometry of a 320-slice CT scanner. Contrast-enhanced vessel lumens were modeled as 8  mg/ml Iodine solution against a lipid background. Normal vessels were simulated by circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3 mm. To simulate lesions, 2, 3, and 4 mm diameter vessels were simulated with area stenoses in a range of 10–90 %. The occlusion was created by a circular region o f lipid placed within the lumen resulting in a crescent shaped lumen. Each vessel was simulated three times to obtain multiple noise realizations for a total of 126 vessels. Two trained readers performed manual cross-sectional area measurements in simulated normal and stenotic vessels. A new, semi-a utomated technique based on integrated Hounsfield units was also used to calculate vessel cross-sectional area. There was an excellent correlation between the measured and the known cross-sectional area for both normal and stenotic vessels using the manual and the semi-automated techniques. However, the overall measurement error for the manual method was more than twice as compared with the integrate...
Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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Identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients improves risk stratification and defines clinical management. However, the value of screening for subclinical CAD with cardiac CT in AF patients is unknown. Between 2011 and 2015 94 consecutive patients without known or suspected CAD (66 (57 –73) years, 68% male), who were referred for AF evaluation, underwent a non-contrast-enhanced coronary calcium scan and a coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) at our center.
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The absence of vasospasm in the first DSA performed in patients with SAH and negative tomographic angiography could be a useful criterion for establishing an optimal follow-up protocol in these patients, without exposing them to unnecessary risks and radiation. PMID: 32242335 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista de Neurologia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Rev Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Penetrating trauma in children and adolescents is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. There are similarities with the management of these injuries in adults, but further work is required to ensure that paediatric management algorithms are evidence based. PMID: 32243113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: South African Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Tags: S Afr J Surg Source Type: research
Conclusion The RRI, a sub-clinical renal parameter is an atherosclerotic marker in patients without renal impairment. PMID: 32238661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Abstract No study has evaluated the impact of different iodinated contrast media on coronary contrast enhancement, using an injection protocol according to body surface area (BSA). Thus, the present study aimed to examine the usefulness and safety of personalized application of different iodine concentrations of contrast media in coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography with a 2nd dual-source CT scanner in eliminating differences in coronary contrast enhancement based on a BSA-adapted injection protocol of contrast media. A total of 270 enrolled participants were randomly assigned to three groups: ioversol 3...
Source: J Cell Mol Med - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: J Cell Mol Med Source Type: research
By STEPHEN BORSTELMANN, MD Occasionally, you get handed a question you know little about, but it’s clear you need to know more.  Like most of us these days, I was chatting with my colleagues about the novel coronavirus. It goes by several names: SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV or COVID-19 but I’ll just call it COVID.  Declared a pandemic on March 12, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID is diagnosed by laboratory test – PCR.  The early PCR test used in Wuhan was apparently low sensitivity (30-60%), lengthy to run (days), and in short supply.  As CT scanning was relatively availa...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: COVID-19 Hospitals Medical Practice Physicians coronavirus CT scans Imaging infecton control Pandemic Radiology Stephen Borstelmann Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONS: CTA in FFBR can have a wider impact than facilitating surgical planning and reducing operative times. Incidental findings can influence the surgical plan, and in some instances, avoid doomed-to-fail and unsafe surgery. It is therefore important that these scans are reported by an experienced radiologist. PMID: 32203991 [PubMed]
Source: Archives of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Arch Plast Surg Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2020Source: Academic RadiologyAuthor(s): Liang Jin, Yiyi Gao, An'qi Jiang, Zhenlin Li, Peijun Wang, Ming Li
Source: Academic Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
We present a case of a 15-year-old boy who was stabbed with a bamboo stick in his left eye. The chopsticks passed through the orbit roof and penetrated the skull base. In subsequent days, the patient sustained CSF leak and intracranial infection after an unsatisfied primary treatment in the local hospital and had to request a secondary operation in our department. Computed tomography including plain scan, three dimension reconstruction and computed tomographic angiography are used to determine the course and extent of head injury. A frontal craniotomy was performed. Three pieces of stick were found residual and removed wit...
Source: Chinese Journal of Traumatology - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Chin J Traumatol Source Type: research
We report a case of a 74-year-old man with inferior epigastric artery (IEA) pseudoaneurysm secondary to an 8-mm port placement during a robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy with ureteroileocutaneostomy. The pseudoaneurysm was initially diagnosed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS); subsequently, a computed tomography (CT) scan and an angiography test were performed. The pseudoaneurysm was then treated successfully with embolization of the inferior epigastric artery. Awareness of this rare complication is of clinical importance to avoid excessive morbidity of affected individuals.
Source: Journal of Ultrasound - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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