The Ebola Crisis and the Corresponding Public Behavior: A System Dynamics Approach

Conclusion and Future Work It is vital to consider how the behavior of communities plays an important role in the spread of Ebola in West Africa. This extends not only to the disease itself but also to the contagion of irrational behaviors. Not only the public, but also high ranking officials, scientists, and even policy makers are at risk for presumptive and consequently dangerous behavior; therefore, it is necessary to combine physical disease spread along with behavioral practices that hinder or spread the disease. As the United Nations head of the Ebola mission (Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed) attested, combatting the Ebola outbreak was slowed by both “traditional practices” and “lack of knowledge” (Ohlheiser, 2015)27. Future considerations of behavioral and psychological factors are needed for an adequate and effective response to outbreaks of deadly diseases such as Ebola. The system dynamics approach is a very helpful tool in grasping the whole picture and helping key actors better understand and act upon the reality and facts within the chaotic behavioral decisions and their impact on an epidemic. Overall, response to any infectious disease such as Ebola requires constant monitoring and adaptability. Dynamic adaptability is a feature of our model, which gets away from presumptions as we strive to create a working baseline for future policy implementation modeling as well as retrospective impact assessment, particularly with regard to social and beha...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Parasitology InternationalAuthor(s): L. Buffoni, M.M. Piva, P. Baska, K. Januszkiewicz, L.J. Norbury, K.C. Prior, D. Dezen, A.S. Silva, H. Wedrychowiczhz, R.E. MendesAbstractThe aim of this study was to assess the immune response and the protective efficacy elicited by the vaccination with the recombinant Fasciola hepatica myosin regulatory light chain (FhrMRLC) in Adjuplex® adjuvant against the infection with F. hepatica in rats. Four groups of 15 animals each were used for the study, one group was immunized with the recombinant F. hepatica MRLC in Adjuplex&re...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Small Ruminant ResearchAuthor(s): J. Reintke, K. Brügemann, H. Wagner, P. Engel, A. Wehrend, S. KönigAbstractThere is an increasing economic pressure in sheep production. Hence, it is imperative to use all available tools contributing to improvements in lamb survival. In this regard, there is a lack of studies addressing the impact of maternal body condition traits on lamb performances during lactation. Specifically, the focus of the present study was to analyse associations between ewe traits reflecting maternal energy metabolism and lamb body weight (LB...
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, we generated two recombinant RABVs, rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF, expressing the NiV Malaysian strain attachment glycoprotein (NiV-G) or fusion glycoprotein (NiV-F) gene based on the rERAG333E vector platform. Both rERAG333E/NiVG and rERAG333E/NiVF displayed growth properties similar to those of rERAG333E and caused marked syncytia formation after co-infection in BSR cell culture. Adult and suckling mice intracerebrally inoculated with the recombinant RABVs showed NiV-G and NiV-F expression did not increase the virulence of rERAG333E. Oral vaccination with rERAG333E/NiVG either singularly or combined wi...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, e-First Articles. We are currently facing an “obesity epidemic” worldwide. Promoting inefficient metabolism in muscle represents a potential treatment for obesity and its complications. Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps in muscle are responsible for maintaining low cytosolic Ca2+ concentration through the ATP-depe ndent pumping of Ca2+ from the cytosol into the SR lumen. SERCA activity has the potential to be a critical regulator of body mass and adiposity given that it is estimated to contribute upwards of 20% of daily energy expenditure....
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - Category: Physiology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Saekil Yun, Seung-Jun Lee, Sib Sankar Giri, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Geun Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Se Jin Han, Jun Kwon, Woo Taek Oh, Se Chang ParkAbstractThe aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel route of administration for vaccinating fish against Aeromonas hydrophila infection using a dissolving microneedles (MNs) patch. The A. hydrophila JUNAH strain was inactivated with formalin and used as a vaccine antigen. It was mixed with dissolvable carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the matrix material to produce the MNs pat...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
This study describes the nutritional status of Qom preschoolers in general, and by neighborhood area and family's socioeconomic characteristics in a peri-urban village of Formosa, Argentina. Across-sectional study was carried out between January and December 2016, with 160 Qom children between 2 and 5 years of age. Interviews and anthropometric measures were conducted at the children's homes. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index. The prevalence of excess weight (overweight + obesity) and of stunting were associated with neighborhood area and socioeconomic level. The overall prevalence of stunting was 15.6% ...
Source: Ecology of Food and Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Tags: Ecol Food Nutr Source Type: research
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R Abstract BACKGROUND: Lorcaserin is a novel, selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C serotonin receptor agonist, approved for the treatment of obesity. Several phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) trials have shown a significant reduction in body weight with lorcaserin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We systematically searched the database of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov up to July 31, 2019 and retrieved all the studies conducted with lorcaserin for ≥ 1-year that have explicitly reported the efficacy and safety outcomes versus placebo. Subsequently, we s...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: EpidemicsAuthor(s): Theresa Stocks, Leah J. Martin, Sharon Kühlmann-Berenzon, Tom BrittonAbstractTo reach the WHO goal of hepatitis C elimination, it is essential to identify the number of people unaware of their hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and to investigate the effect of interventions on the disease transmission dynamics. In many high-income countries, one of the primary routes of HCV transmission is via contaminated needles shared by people who inject drugs (PWIDs). However, substantial underreporting combined with high uncertainty regarding the size ...
Source: Epidemics - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Authors: Abstract "My biggest motivation is the discovery of new therapeutics to save lives. The most significant scientific advance of the last 100 years has been the discovery of polio vaccine …" Find out more about Yanli Zhao in his Author Profile. PMID: 31816177 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Angewandte Chemie - Category: Chemistry Tags: Angew Chem Int Ed Engl Source Type: research
Chairman of The Nippon Foundation Yohei Sasakawa and BRAC Executive Director Asif Saleh announcing $2 million partnership. Credit: Rafiqul Islam / IPSBy Rafiqul IslamDHAKA, Bangladesh, Dec 11 2019 (IPS) In the light of limited access to education for displaced Rohingya children, the Nippon Foundation has announced US$ 2 million support to BRAC to launch a project to ensure educational facilities to both Rohingya and local community children. The Nippon Foundation made the announcement at a press conference at the BRAC Centre in Dhaka, which was attended by Nippon Foundation chairman Yohei Sasakawa and BRAC Executive Direc...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Asia-Pacific Conferences Development & Aid Education Featured Headlines Health Human Rights Migration & Refugees Poverty & SDGs TerraViva United Nations National Leprosy Conference - Dhaka 2019 Source Type: news
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