Relationship between viral dose and outcome of infection in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., post-smolts bath-challenged with salmonid alphavirus subtype 3

AbstractSalmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12  °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L−1 of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L−1 of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a substantial level of variation between replicate tanks and, therefore, likely represents a dose close to the minimum dose required to establish an infection in a population. These data also confirm the highly infectious nature of SAV through horizontal transmission. The outcome of SAV3 infection, evaluated by the prevalence of viraemic fish, SAV3-positive hearts, and the virus shedding rate, was positively correlated to the original SAV3 dose. A maximal shedding rate of 2.4  × 104 TCID50 L−1 of seawater h−1 kg−1 was recorded 10  days post-exposure (dpe) from the highest dose group. The method reported here, for the quantification of infectious SAV3 in seawater, could be useful to monitor PD status or obtain data from SAV3 outbreaks at field locations. This information could be incorporated into pathogen dispersal mode...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Authors: Karimi G, Vard B, Riyahi R, Motlagh ME, Heshmat R, Kelishadi R Abstract This cross-sectional study was conducted among 14,400 Iranian students, aged 7-18 years to determine the association between the frequency of family dinner and mental health. Family dinner frequency, family relationship, life satisfaction (LS), self-perceived health and anxiety were assessed by validated questionnaires. Of 14,274 participants, 50.6% were boys and 71.4% were urban residents, with a mean (SD) age of 12.28 (3.16) years. Family dinner frequency was significantly correlated with LS (boys: β = 0.27, p 
Source: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition - Category: Nutrition Tags: Int J Food Sci Nutr Source Type: research
In this study we explored the use of a natural compound rubusoside (RUB) as a solubilizer to enhance the solubility of a fluorescence-labeled C6-Ceramide (NBD C6-Ceramide) and to characterize its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in an animal model. RUB significantly enhanced the solubility of NBD C6-Ceramide by forming nanomicelles, and efficiently delivered NBD C6-Ceramide in rats by oral and intravenous administration. RUB loaded 1.96% of NBD C6-Ceramide in the nanomicelles and solubilized it to a concentration of 3.6 mg/mL in water. NBD C6-Ceramide in nanomicelles remained stable in aqueous solutions, all...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Prostaglandins &Other Lipid MediatorsAuthor(s): Giorgio Mottola, Evan Werlin, Bian Wu, Mian Chen, Anuran Chatterjee, Melinda Schaller, Michael S. ConteAbstractInflammation ensuing from vascular injury promotes intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a lipid mediator that attenuates IH in vivo when delivered locally to the vessel wall in animal models. We tested the hypothesis that peri-procedural oral administration of RvD1 could blunt the local inflammatory response to angioplasty, and attenuate downstream IH. Carotid angioplasty was per...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
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