Progress in neuro-imaging of brain tumors

Purpose of review: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. Recent findings: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and perfusion-weighted imaging add important structural, hemodynamic, and physiological information for tumor diagnosis and classification, as well as to stratify tumor response. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is able to depict with unprecedented accuracy metabolic biomarkers, which are relevant for molecular subtyping. Ultra-high-field imaging enhances anatomical detail and enables to explore new horizon in tumor imaging. Summary: The noninvasive MRI-based assessment of tumor malignancy and molecular status may offer the opportunity to predict prognosis and to select patients who may be candidates for individualized targeted therapies, providing more sensitive tools for their follow-up.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Tsiouris S, Bougias C, Fotopoulos A Abstract Cerebral gliomas comprise a heterogeneous group of primary neoplasms of the central nervous system, representing a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is paramount for identifying structural brain abnormalities related to the development of gliomas. Although morphological MRI remains the current standard of care for initial diagnostic workup, surgical planning, monitoring therapy response and surveillance during follow-up, it is rather difficult to define tumor grade and boundaries and to assess...
Source: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Hell J Nucl Med Source Type: research
Abstract High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are aggressive primary brain tumors that confer poor prognoses. Despite aggressive combined modality treatment, HGGs invariably recur. Considerable research efforts and resources have focused on identification of novel therapies for HGGs; however, standard treatments have not changed significantly in more than 10 years, since the introduction of concurrent chemoradiation therapy with temozolomide. Hyperthermia (HT) has been shown to enhance the efficacy of radiation treatment (RT) in numerous cancer types through multiple mechanisms, including impairment of DNA repair pathways,...
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research
ConclusionsDynamic contrast ‐enhanced‐Magnetic resonance imaging is a promising noninvasive imaging method that has moderate or high accuracy in stratifying gliomas. DCE‐MRI shows high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between HGGs and their low‐grade counterparts, and moderate diagnostic accuracy in discriminating recurrent lesions and treatment‐related changes as well as PCNSLs and HGGs.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
We report a new approach of combining model free independent component analysis (ICA) identification of specific signal profiles of DSC MRI time course data and extraction of the features from those time course profiles to interrogate time course data followed by calculating the region specific blood volume based on selected individual time courses. Based on the retrospective analysis of DSC MRI data from 38 patients with pathology confirmed low (n = 18) and high (n = 20) grade gliomas, the results reveal the spatially defined intra-tumoral hemodynamic heterogeneity of brain tumors based on features of time course ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Ivy D. Deng1, Luke Chung2, Natasha Talwar3,4, Fred Tam1, Nathan W. Churchill3, Tom A. Schweizer3,4,5,6† and Simon J. Graham1,2*† 1Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute (SRI), Toronto, ON, Canada 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 3Neuroscience Research Program, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, Toronto, ON, Canada 4Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada 5Division of Neurosurgery, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada 6Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Univer...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
To identify clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of different types of metastatic brain lesions, including standard anatomical, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic susceptibil...
Source: Cancer Imaging - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
rt Galldiks Imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide valuable information about brain tumor patients. Particularly amino acid PET, advanced MRI techniques, and combinations thereof are of great interest for the non-invasive assessment of biological characteristics in patients with primary or secondary brain cancer. A methodological innovation that potentially advances research in patients with brain tumors is the increasing availability of hybrid PET/MRI systems, which enables the simultaneous acquisition of both imaging modalities. Furthermore, the adve...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Alternate ascending/descending directional navigation (ALADDIN) is a novel arterial spin labeling technique that does not require a separate spin preparation pulse. We sought to compare the normalized cerebral blood flow (nCBF) values obtained by ALADDIN and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with primary brain tumors underwent MRI scans including contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, DSC perfusion MRI, and ALADDIN. The nCBF values of normal gray matter (GM) and tum...
Source: Korean J Radiol - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research
hez-Gonzalez Marian Navas-Martí Blanca Domenech-Ximenos Sonia Del Barco Montserrat Puigdemont Carlos Leiva-Salinas Max Wintermark Kambiz Nael Rajan Jain Salvador Pedraza A higher degree of angiogenesis is associated with shortened survival in glioblastoma. Feasible morphometric parameters for analyzing vascular networks in brain tumors in clinical practice are lacking. We investigated whether the macrovascular network classified by the number of vessel-like structures (nVS) visible on three-dimensional T1-weighted contrast–enhanced (3D-T1CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could impr...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Objective The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) gradient in the peritumoral brain zone (PBZ)—the difference in the rCBV values from the area closest to the enhancing lesion to the area closest to the healthy white matter—in differentiating glioblastoma (GB) from solitary brain metastasis (MET). Methods A 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine was used to perform dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) on 43 patients with a solitary brain tumor (24 GB, 19 MET). The rCBV ratios were acquired by DSC-MRI data in 3 regions of t...
Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography - Category: Radiology Tags: Neuroradiology Source Type: research
More News: Brain | Brain Cancers | Brain Tumor | Cancer & Oncology | MRI Scan | Neurology | Perfusion