The impact of co-infections on fish: a review

We present a concise summary about the present knowledge regarding co-infections in fish. More research is needed to better understand the immune response of fish during mixed infections as these could have an important impact on the development of new strategies for disease control programs and vaccination in fish.
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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In this study, 48 PCV2 strains were isolated in China between 2016 and 2018 and the genetic diversity of these PCV2 isolates was determined. Results showed that these PCV2 isolates were classified into genotypes PCV2a (4 of 48), PCV2b (13 of 48) and PCV2d (31 of 48). Among them, 54.5% isolated in 2016, 65.2% isolated in 2017 and 71.4% isolated in 2018 belonged to PCV2d. It indicated that the prevalence of PCV2d genotype increased. All strains shared 93.4%-100% nucleotide sequence identity for the whole genome. Results of the analysis using RDP 4.0 molecular recombination software showed there were no recombinant events amo...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
We report the longitudinal profile of ILTV genome copies (GC) in poultry house dust collected on settle plates following vaccination of 8 flocks of commercial meat chickens on four farms. ILTV GC was enumerated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). There was considerable variation between flocks in the levels of ILTV GC detected post vaccination and this variation was significantly associated with vaccine take measured in individual birds in a companion study. There was no effect of sampling location on ILTV GC in dust but the amount of dust collected was greater in locations closer the exhaust fan...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, data on 98 ASF cases in China from August 1st, 2018 to January 1st, 2019 were collected and analyzed. Spatio-temporal cluster and directional distribution analysis were performed to characterize the distribution of ASF cases. High risk areas for ASF outbreaks in China were identified using the presence-only maximum entropy (MaxEnt) ecological niche model. The distribution of ASF cases from Aug 1st, 2018 to Jan 1st, 2019 in China showed a significant directional trend (northeast-southwest) (P 
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
, Norheim G Abstract Today's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. This global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), which pose a growing threat to global health security.Outbreaks of EIDs, like the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa or the current Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) at risk in terms of morbidity and mortality, but they also have had a significant impa...
Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz Source Type: research
Abstract Monkeypox virus is a zoonotic Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and residents from nearby villages, and describe contact with possible monkeypox reservoirs. We focused specifically on Gambian rats (Cricetomys spp.) because it is a recognized possible reservoir and because contact with this species was common enough to render suffi...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
This study was carried out to assess post-vaccination herd immunity against PPR and inter-vaccination population turnover in small ruminant flocks in Metema district, Northwest Ethiopia where frequent PPR outbreaks occur despite regular vaccination. A total of 412 serum samples were collected from selected small ruminants in 72 flocks (average flock size of 33.4 and standard deviation of 30) above three months of age in three kebeles immediately before a vaccination program. One month after the vaccination using freeze dried live attenuated vaccine, 359 serum samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminants in...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors leading to the development of clinical CMS, using data provided from the salmon producers. Daily production data from individual fishgroups in more than 120 salmon farms along the coast of Norway from fish put to sea in 2012-2014 was collected. The data included cause-specific mortalities, which was used to identify outbreaks of CMS and risk factors for disease.A model for describing the daily probability of outbreak of CMS in each fishgroup was developed. The model was run to find the most likely value for each of the parameters, given the observed outbreak d...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractIn Xayaboury province, located in the northern region of Lao PDR, the foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccination campaign just began in 2009. Up until now, a small number of farms have been vaccinated. When FMD outbreaks occur, it is interesting to determine the risk factors of FMD, especially in the area where vaccination rates are low. The questionnaire survey, using a case-control design at the household level, was carried out. From 59 villages with a total number of 434 households, 181 households who experienced FMD were assigned as case households, 146 households without FMD occurrence inside the outbreak villag...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Felipe Rocha, Ricardo Augusto DiasAbstractThe importance of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus for the transmission of the rabies virus does not lie solely in its ability to transmit this disease to other mammals, but also in its capacity to adapt to environmental and climatic changes, granting them a wide geographical distribution. Control of this disease is currently based on culling of the vampire bat and vaccination of the livestock. A transmission model incorporating geographic and behavioral determinants of the v...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractRecurrent infectious bursal disease (IBD) outbreaks were reported in different regions of Kerala, India. This paper reports the comparative genetic analysis of the hypervariable region of the VP2 gene of IBD virus isolates from the field outbreaks in Kerala. In phylogenetic analysis, the obtained field isolates fall into genogroup 1 and 3. In genogroup 3, all vvIBDV isolates shared a common ancestor with other south Indian isolates but isolates 9/CVASP/IBDV, 10/CVASP/IBDV, 12/CVASP/IBDV, 14/CVASP/IBDV and 17/CVASP/IBDV are most recently evolved and are diverged from the south Indian isolates. The amino acid sequenc...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
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