2016 Nobel Prize Winner Yoshinori Ohsumi's Discoveries Could Change How We Treat Disease

Japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi, 71, won the 2016 Nobel Prize on Monday for his research on autophagy ― a metabolic recycling process in which cells eat parts of themselves to survive and stay healthy. His initial work, first started in 1992, focused on the genes behind the autophagy process in yeast cells. Autophagy, however, has implications for several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases and diabetes. Now drugs that can target the process are being tested in early-stage clinical trials in human beings, which could fundamentally change everything from the way we treat dementia disorders to how we eradicate cancerous growths.  Autophagy is a normal part of a cell’s lifespan. Individual cells can “eat” parts of themselves, especially old or damaged parts, and recycle the material to help keep themselves healthy. Think of it like recycling: By shedding damaged or dying parts inside the cell, the cell has a new resource from which to repair itself and keep itself running.  Autophagy helps address normal damage and wear and tear to cells, but also plays a role in everything from fighting bacterial or viral infections to in-cell differentiation in embryo development. A dysfunctional autophagy process has also been linked to Type 2 diabetes and other genetic diseases, the Nobel Prize site notes. In particular, it may play an important role in two distinct disease types that are diff...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology researchers reveal atomic structures of the abnormal tau filaments associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a head injury-associated neurodegenerative disease, differ in structure from those seen in Alzheimer’s disease.
Source: Medical Research Council General News - Category: Research Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Jason A. Martin, Nadine Zimmermann, Lukas Scheef, Jakob Jankowski, Sebastian Paus, Hans H. Schild, Thomas Klockgether, Henning BoeckerAbstractMany studies have used functional magnetic resonance imaging to unravel the neuronal underpinnings of motor system abnormalities in Parkinson's disease, indicating functional inhibition at the level of basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical motor networks. The study aim was to extend the characterization of functional motor changes in Parkinson's Disease by dissociating between two phases of action (i.e. m...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsFOSL1 is an independent prognostic biomarker of GC. Detecting FOSL1 expression could help stratify GC patients with high-risk and guide the precious treatment.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway in human endometrial cancer cells invasion and migration. We demonstrated that Stat3 is activated in endometrial cancer cell lines. To investigate the role of Stat3 in endometrial cancer invasive capacity, we used Stat3 inhibitor Stattic and found that Stattic significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells elevated by IL-6. Furthermore, we showed that Stat3 inhibitor significantly decreased the expression of MMP2 enhanced by IL-6, indicating that IL-6 promoted endometrial cancer invasion and migration by Stat3-in...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2019Source: Pathology - Research and PracticeAuthor(s): Xiaobo He, Ying ShuAbstractIncreasing evidence has shown that dysregulation of mircoRNA (miRNA) is linked to the development and progression of human cancer, including gastric cancer (GC). In the current study, by analysing the GEO database (GSE78091), we found that miR-660 was significantly downregulated in GC. Consistently, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that miR-660 was dramatically decreased in GC tissues and cell lines. Importantly, low miR-660 expression was closely related to larger tumor size (P&...
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results pointed out that the high expression of miR-106b-5p serves as an independent factor for predicting the worse prognosis of RCC patients.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2019Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle SurgeryAuthor(s): J. Randolph Clements, Ajay K. GhaiAbstractDisruption of the plantar plate is a common cause of forefoot pain, metatarsalgia, and metatarsophalangeal joint malalignment. Although surgical repair of the plantar plate has improved, there has been no consensus on the clinical superiority of any single technique, or combination of techniques, described in the literature to date. In this publication, we report a case of plantar plate injury treated with an innovative new technique with 20-month follow-up.
Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2019Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive GynecologyAuthor(s): Sadikah Behbehani, Tiffany Pham, Katie Kunze, Megan Wasson, Johnny YiABSTRACTStudy ObjectiveTo determine the incidence of a successful in-office voiding trial after minimally invasive hysterectomy.DesignA retrospective cohort study.SettingA tertiary care academic center.PatientsAll patients undergoing minimally invasive hysterectomies (vaginal, laparoscopic, or robotic) from January 2013 to July 2018 who have an unsuccessful voiding trial in the postoperative unit.InterventionsA voiding trial.Measurements and Main ...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
In conclusion, clinical presentation at time of diagnosis of brain metastases consistently includes neurologic signs and symptoms with persistent headache being the most common. Endometrial cancer patients that present with new neurologic complaints or exam findings should be evaluated for brain metastases.
Source: Gynecologic Oncology Reports - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
In this study, we show that calorie restriction is protective against age-related increases in senescence and microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of aging. Further, these protective effects mitigated age-related decline in neuroblast and neuronal production, and enhanced olfactory memory performance, a behavioral index of neurogenesis in the SVZ. Our results support the concept that calorie restriction might be an effective anti-aging intervention in the context of healthy brain aging. Greater Modest Activity in Late Life Correlates with Lower Incidence of Dementia ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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