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2016 Nobel Prize Winner Yoshinori Ohsumi's Discoveries Could Change How We Treat Disease

Japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi, 71, won the 2016 Nobel Prize on Monday for his research on autophagy ― a metabolic recycling process in which cells eat parts of themselves to survive and stay healthy. His initial work, first started in 1992, focused on the genes behind the autophagy process in yeast cells. Autophagy, however, has implications for several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases and diabetes. Now drugs that can target the process are being tested in early-stage clinical trials in human beings, which could fundamentally change everything from the way we treat dementia disorders to how we eradicate cancerous growths.  Autophagy is a normal part of a cell’s lifespan. Individual cells can “eat” parts of themselves, especially old or damaged parts, and recycle the material to help keep themselves healthy. Think of it like recycling: By shedding damaged or dying parts inside the cell, the cell has a new resource from which to repair itself and keep itself running.  Autophagy helps address normal damage and wear and tear to cells, but also plays a role in everything from fighting bacterial or viral infections to in-cell differentiation in embryo development. A dysfunctional autophagy process has also been linked to Type 2 diabetes and other genetic diseases, the Nobel Prize site notes. In particular, it may play an important role in two distinct disease types that are diff...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Supriya G. Mohile, M.D., M.S., an oncologist at the Wilmot Cancer Institute and trailblazer in the growing field of geriatric oncology, has been named the 2018 winner of the B.J. Kennedy Award by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). She will deliver the B.J. Kennedy Lecture on June 4 at ASCO ’s annual meeting in Chicago.
Source: University of Rochester Medical Center Press Releases - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: Further studies using biomarker-underpinned diagnoses are warranted to shed more light on the potential diagnostic utility of BACE1 activity as AD biomarker candidate in MCI. PMID: 29788013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Source Type: research
Lung cancer has long been associated mostly with men. But a new study finds a disturbing trend among women, even among those who do not smoke. Tara Narula reports.
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Interleukin-11 was developed to reduce chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia; however, its clinical use was limited by severe adverse effects in humans. PEGylated interleukin‐11 (BBT‐059), developed by Bolder Biotechnology, Inc., exhibited a longer half-life in rodents and induced longer-lasting increases in hematopoietic cells than interleukin‐11. A single dose of 1.2 mg kg−1 of BBT‐059, administered subcutaneously to CD2F1 mice (12–14 wk, male) was found to be safe in a 14 d toxicity study. The drug demonstrated its efficacy both as a prophylactic countermeasure and a mitigator in CD2F1 mice exposed t...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research
In conclusion, several confounding factors tested in this study can indeed modulate the transcriptional response of CCNG1 and PHPT1 and consequently can affect radiation exposure dose estimations but not to a level which should prevent the biomarkers’ use for triage purposes.
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks. To repair double-strand breaks correctly, cells must distinguish between the ends of chromosomes (telomeres) and DNA double-strand breaks within chromosomes. Double-strand breaks in telomeric DNA may lead to telomere shortening and mutagenesis. Eukaryotic cells repair double-strand breaks primarily by two mechanisms: error-free homologous recombination and error-prone nonhomologous end joining, of which homologous recombination is used in early meiotic prophase I to create recombined haploid gametes by two meiotic cell divisions lacking an intervenin...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Tumor cells shed exosomes, which are released to the blood. Detecting tumor-derived exosomes containing RNA in plasma (liquid biopsy) is currently being investigated for early identification of occult metastases or relapses. Isolation of exosomes is laborious, resulting in low RNA yields. As a more robust (but less sensitive) alternative, the authors examined whether whole blood can be used as well. Tumor samples from nonmetastasized seminoma (n = 5) and colon cancer patients (n = 6) were taken during surgery. Whole-blood samples were taken before and 5–7 d after surgery. A whole genome mRNA microarray screening was ...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Ionizing radiation can induce genomic lesions such as DNA double-strand breaks whose incomplete or faulty repair can result in mutations, which in turn can influence cellular functions and alter the fate of affected cells and organ systems. Ionizing-radiation-induced sequence alterations/mutations occur in a stochastic manner, which contributes to an increased cancer risk in irradiated individuals. Ionizing radiation exposure, and particularly acute doses at high dose rates (as often observed in radiation accidents), induce alterations in the genome that in part will reflect specific characteristics of the DNA damage respo...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: Papers Source Type: research
This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986–1991 to 105 in 2011–2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period. Increased radiation risks of leukemia in the Ukrainian cohort of 110,645 cleanup workers ex...
Source: Health Physics - Category: Radiology Tags: Review Papers Source Type: research
A SIMPLE new procedure could help infertile women to become pregnant, scientists believe. The Revita technique – pioneered at King’s College Hospital, London – has already shown promising results in treating people with Type 2 diabetes.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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