2016 Nobel Prize Winner Yoshinori Ohsumi's Discoveries Could Change How We Treat Disease

Japanese scientist Yoshinori Ohsumi, 71, won the 2016 Nobel Prize on Monday for his research on autophagy ― a metabolic recycling process in which cells eat parts of themselves to survive and stay healthy. His initial work, first started in 1992, focused on the genes behind the autophagy process in yeast cells. Autophagy, however, has implications for several human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases and diabetes. Now drugs that can target the process are being tested in early-stage clinical trials in human beings, which could fundamentally change everything from the way we treat dementia disorders to how we eradicate cancerous growths.  Autophagy is a normal part of a cell’s lifespan. Individual cells can “eat” parts of themselves, especially old or damaged parts, and recycle the material to help keep themselves healthy. Think of it like recycling: By shedding damaged or dying parts inside the cell, the cell has a new resource from which to repair itself and keep itself running.  Autophagy helps address normal damage and wear and tear to cells, but also plays a role in everything from fighting bacterial or viral infections to in-cell differentiation in embryo development. A dysfunctional autophagy process has also been linked to Type 2 diabetes and other genetic diseases, the Nobel Prize site notes. In particular, it may play an important role in two distinct disease types that are diff...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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We present four cases of fixated cuffed tunneled catheters. Three children had acute lymphoblastic leukemia and one had an immunodeficiency syndrome. All catheters were made from polyurethane. Indwelling times were 12-24 months. All patients` catheters were removed with great difficulty by trans-femoral access. The angiography-assisted technique is safe and easily-applied for the removal of stuck catheters in pediatric patients. These cases raise important questions concerning the maximum indwelling time and the choice of catheter material when implanting permanent central venous catheters (CVCs) in children. PMID: 30...
Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
This study focused on the case of a 35-monthold boy who was referred to our clinic with the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis, and later had a modest elevation in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (6.7 %) incompatible with his significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The autoantibodies against pancreatic β-cells were negative. On the basis of these above mentioned findings, our patient was then diagnosed with fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus. If patients with diabetic ketoacidosis have no elevation in HbA1c levels, they should be assessed for possible clinical factors that can lead to lower detectable levels of HbA...
Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
In this study we aim to determine the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of common TPMT (*2, *3A, *3B and *3C) polymorphisms in Turkish children with acute leukemia. The study population consisted of 169 patients aged between 1 and 15 years who were admitted to Losante Pediatric Hematology and Children`s Hospital with the diagnosis of acute leukemia. Genotyping of TPMT polymorphisms was screened with real-time PCR using fluorescence melting curve detection analysis. We found that the frequencies of four allelic variants of TPMT are *2 (238 G> C) (0,0%), *3A (460G> A and 719A> G) (1.7%), *3B (460G> A) ...
Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
Abstract Khajavi L, Khademi G, Mehramiz M, Norouzy A, Safarian M. Association of dysglycemia with mortality in children receiving parenteral nutrition in pediatric intensive care unit. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 134-141. One of the most important complications of parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high incidence of hyperglycemia. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parenteral nutrition dysglycemia on clinical outcomes among critically ill children in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Charts of 201 critically ill children admitted in PICU during 2012-2015 were reviewed retrospectively. We included patients who were
Source: The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Turk J Pediatr Source Type: research
Immunotherapy has already revolutionized cancer care. Combining various immunotherapies promises even greater success, but will the already high cost of these therapies put combos out of reach?Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news
PROSTATE cancer symptoms don ’t always appear in the early stages until the tumour has grown and put pressure on other parts of the body. When this happens, pain in certain parts of the body may begin to show.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
TYPE 2 diabetes symptoms are difficult to detect because they don ’t alway make you feel unwell. But being familiar with the warning signs can help you avoid serious health complications. One of the signs is a common skin condition.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
TYPE 2 diabetes symptoms are difficult to detect because they don ’t alway make you feel unwell. But being familiar with the warning signs can help you avoid serious health complications. One of the signs is a common skin condition.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Zhang Z, Qi Y, Kong W, Jin Q, Wang X, Dong Y, Wang Y, Li H Abstract BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and clinical value of liraglutide for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) complicated by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with DM complicated by NAFLD (n=835) were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 424 patients were included in the liraglutide group and 411 patients were included in the conventional drug group. Venous blood was collected to test blood glucose levels, blood lipid levels, and liver function....
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS The use of POCT for BG in hospitalized patients may be inappropriate. The utilization of urine microalbumin should be promoted to effectively prevent diabetic nephropathy. PMID: 30323162 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
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