Prescription stimulant medication misuse: Where are we and where do we go from here?

Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses. The purpose of the present article is to review historical information concerning prescription stimulants and to summarize the literature with respect to misuse among adults, particularly college students, including risk factors, mediators and moderators, and motivations for prescription stimulant misuse. In addition, evidence is presented concerning the question of whether prescription stimulants truly enhance cognitive functioning in individuals with and without ADHD, and the ethical and professional implications of these findings are explored. Lastly, recommendations for addressing prescription stimulant misuse and suggestions for future research are advanced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research

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Source: Ophthalmic Epidemiology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
Dexmethylphenidate, and potentially other methylphenidates used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may cause severe muscle pain and stiffness. Medication side effects should be considered as the possible cause if a patient with ADHD develops severe symptoms. AbstractDexmethylphenidate, and potentially other methylphenidates used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), may cause severe muscle pain and stiffness. Medication side effects should be considered as the possible cause if a patient with ADHD develops severe symptoms.
Source: Clinical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
Authors: Childress A, Hoo-Cardiel A, Lang P Abstract Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly occurs in children, adolescents, and adults. Although symptoms of ADHD often respond robustly to treatment with stimulants (amphetamine or methylphenidate), not all patients are appropriate candidates for treatment with these drugs. Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is a non-stimulant alternative drug approved for the treatment of ADHD in the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Europe.Areas covered: The chemistry, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and dosage of GXR are presented. Efficacy an...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: The LancetAuthor(s): Jonathan Posner, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Edmund Sonuga-BarkeSummaryAttention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), like other psychiatric disorders, represents an evolving construct that has been refined and developed over the past several decades in response to research into its clinical nature and structure. The clinical presentation and course of the disorder have been extensively characterised. Efficacious medication-based treatments are available and widely used, often alongside complementary psychosocial approaches. However, their effectiv...
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
This study examines neurocognitive outcomes of children with IF at ages 4 to 8 years treated at a single centre, along with relevant medical and demographic variables. Methods: Between 2012 and 2016, neurocognitive assessments were administered to 28 children receiving treatment in our IF rehabilitation program, and included measures of intelligence, academics, learning/memory, language, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor dexterity. DSM-IV/V criteria were used to diagnose Learning Disability, Intellectual Disability, and/or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Results: Intellectual functioning ranged from ...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Original Articles: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Publication date: April 2020Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 72Author(s): Daniel E. Lidstone, Faria Z. Miah, Brach Poston, Julie F. Beasley, Janet S. DufekAbstractBackgroundPostural control deficits are commonly reported in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, identification of specific postural sway features that differentiate ASD from other neurodevelopmental disorders has not been examined. The current study employs a cross-syndrome approach by comparing postural sway area and direction-specific features of sway magnitude, sway velocity, and sway complexity between children with AS...
Source: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In the article “Debate: Are Stimulant Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Effective in the Long Term? (For),” by David Coghill, published in the October 2019 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2019;58:938-939), Dr. Coghill’s affiliation was listed incorrectly. The affiliation within the shaded box preceding the article should have appeared as follows: For: Prof. David Coghill (Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia; the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; a...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Correction Source Type: research
Condition:   ADHD Interventions:   Other: Parent-administered TCM pediatric massage training;   Other: Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercise Sponsor:   The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractBackgroundThe aims of the study were to determine the effects of electronic exposure on behaviors of preschoolers, which could provide scientific grounds to the control of digital screen time and usage of electronics.MethodsChildren of 3 –6 years of age (n = 1897) and their families were included in this study. The daily screen time were recorded for seven days. Children were grouped based on daily screen time of  60 min. Socio-demographic characteristics of the children were acquired by parental questionnaires. Analyses were made based on the CBCL/1.5–5 results. Chi-s...
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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