Clinical aspects and diagnostics of cerebral vasculitis.

[Clinical aspects and diagnostics of cerebral vasculitis]. Radiologe. 2016 Sep 27; Authors: Reith W, Kraus C, Harsch N Abstract CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Vasculitis is a rare cause of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Vasculitis can be divided into primary and secondary forms, of which the vast majority can be manifested in various organ systems, including the CNS. Isolated vasculitis of the CNS is limited to the CNS and clinical neurological symptoms as with the other forms of vasculitis, are headaches, encephalopathy, focal deficits and seizures. A criterion of isolated CNS vasculitis is the clinical and laboratory diagnostic exclusion of other forms of vasculitis and the involvement of other organ systems. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Multiple leaps in the caliber of intracranial arteries in cerebral angiography and multiple, small contrast medium-enhanced lesions in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain are typical findings, which, however, can also be found in other forms of vasculitis. PERFORMANCE: The only way of proving meningitis is by a biopsy of the brain meninges and parenchyma. It is necessary to make as accurate a diagnosis as possible, especially in the context of therapeutic options of immunosuppression with steroids and cyclophosphamide. ACHIEVEMENTS: Cerebral vasculitis is a rare entity but it is an important diagnosis to consider when the appropriate clinical symptoms are present. Th...
Source: Der Radiologe - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe possibility ofA.  cantonensis infection should be considered in the effective use of albendazole or mebendazole as a treatment. Combining clinical history with laboratory examination is helpful in diagnosingA.  cantonensis infection. A final definite diagnosis can be confirmed by detecting larvae in the CSF. The administration of corticosteroids during pathogen therapy can substantially reduce the therapeutic response.
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
The immunomodulatory potential and low incidence of severe side effects of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment led to its successful application in a variety of dermatological autoimmune diseases over the last two decades. IVIg are usually administered at a dose of 2g per kg body weight distributed over two to five days every 4 weeks. They are most commonly used as a second or third line treatment in dermatological autoimmune disease (pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, bullous pemphigoid, mucous membrane pemphigoid, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, dermatomyositis, systemic vasculitis, and systemic ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Shanshan Zhang1, Dongli Yuan2 and Ge Tan1* 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China 2The Institute of Medical Information, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China Primary systemic vasculitis can affect every structure in both the central and peripheral nervous system, causing varied neurological manifestations of neurological dysfunction. Early recognition of the underlying causes of the neurological symptoms can facilitate timely treatment and improve the prognosis. This review highlights the clinical manifestations of primary systemic vasc...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions OCB are important biomarkers that can support MRI diagnostics and help to avoid false-positive MS diagnoses. Therefore, the revised McDonalds criteria have increased the importance of the OCB. New biomarkers such as AQP4 have now established themselves in clinical practice, and others such as Anti-MOG and NfL are about to enter clinical routine. An important focus in the search for new biomarkers is the monitoring of therapy efficacy and the prediction of severe side effects. Many other CSF molecules such as CHI3L1, IL-6, or CXCL13 show potential as markers for clinical practice, but further research is nee...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In 2012, a 33-year-old woman was diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) after fulfilling McDonald criteria and careful exclusion of other differential diagnoses. Five years later (EDSS 1), she changed her disease-modifying therapy after side effects to betaferon (flu-like symptoms) and dimethyl fumarate (erythema and pruritus) to daclizumab. Two months after 2 applications of 150 mg daclizumab, she developed a self-limiting rash (figure 1A), followed by fever, headaches, meningismus, photophobia, nausea, paraesthesia, and itching of her upper body 1 month later. Blood test showed decreased lymphocyte counts...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Vasculitis, Critical care, Multiple sclerosis Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research
​BY NOURA MAHDI; DARRON LEWIS; JEREMY OSBORNE; &AHMED RAZIUDDIN, MDA 73-year-old man was brought to the emergency department from his nursing home for rectal bleeding and anemia. The patient mentioned he had had episodes of bright red rectal bleeding and constipation for a few months. A colonoscopy had been done prior to the visit, which revealed a large intestine tumor and biopsy confirming adenocarcinoma. He was awaiting an appointment with his surgeon.The patient reported bloody rectal leakage, and a CBC done at the nursing home showed a hemoglobin level of 7.2. He also complained of dyspnea but denied any other s...
Source: The Case Files - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research
Conclusions:To our knowledge, this is the first case of pathologically confirmed chronic GVHD involving the intracranial vasculature due to a rapidly progressive non-inflammatory occlusive vasculopathy. The poor response to multiple therapies and pathology is akin to allograft vasculopathy. Vasculitis should not be assumed to be the cause of multifocal angiographic stenoses and future cases should consider palliative intracranial angioplasty or stenting.Disclosure: Dr. Bowen has nothing to disclose. Dr. Silver has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sila has received personal compensation for activities with Axio Research, Hoffman La...
Source: Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease Case Reports I Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This report adds to the literature of a novel association of APMPPE with peripheral neuropathy, and comprehensively reviews the neurological manifestations of this disease. A high level of suspicion should be applied when dealing with a case of APMPPE. We recommend applying detailed clinical neurological examinations and magnetic resonance imaging to APMPPE patients, and then early steroid treatment if the examination is positive or even suspicious. Early treatment with steroids and long-term treatment with immunosuppressive azathioprine with interval neurological evaluations will contribute positively to the ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Conclusions:Neurological complications reported with immune checkpoint inhibitors are non-specific and pleomorphic, the most common being meningitis, radiculoneuropathy and myasthenic syndromes. In almost all cases, the outcome was favorable after drug interruption and steroid treatment. As suggested for other irAEs, nAEs may be associated with a clinical benefit and could be indicative for tumor-specific immune activation.
Source: Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: P04 Immunology and immunotherapy Source Type: research
Conclusions: In the absence of hydrocephalus or vasculitis, one week of anti-tuberculosis treatment seems to be adequate for the resolution of TBM symptoms. Hydrocephalus and vasculitis delay the resolution of TBM symptoms in response to antimycobacterial treatment.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
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