Duke Team Identifies Blood Biomarkers in Drug-Resistant Cancer Tumor Cells

Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email:sarah.avery@duke.eduhttps://www.dukehealth.orgFOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE on Wednesday, Sept. 21, 2016Duke Team Identifies Blood Biomarkers in Drug-Resistant Cancer Tumor Cells  DURHAM, N.C. -- While searching for  a non-invasive way to detect prostate cancer cells circulating in blood,Duke Cancer Instituteresearchers have identified some blood markers associated with tumor resistance to two common hormone therapies.In a study published online this month in the journalClinical Cancer Research, the Duke-led team reported that they isolated multiple key gene alterations in the circulating prostate tumor cells of patients who had developed resistance to abiraterone or enzalutamide.  Enzalutamide is a drug that blocks the male androgen receptor, and abiraterone is a drug that lowers testosterone levels. Both drugs are approved to treat hormone-resistant prostate cancer, but the tumors typically develop resistance within a few years.  The study, focusing on a small number of patients and using sophisticated blood analysis technology, demonstrated that circulating tumor cells detected in blood have the potential to reveal important genetic information that could guide treatments selection in the future, and suggest targets for new therapies.“We have developed a method that allows us to examine the whole genome of rare circulating cancer cells in the blood, which is unique in each patient, and which can change over t...
Source: DukeHealth.org: Duke Health Features - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Duke Medicine Source Type: news

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Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The mortality of patients with hormone-resistant prostate cancer can be ascribed to a large degree to metastasis to distant organs, predominantly to the bones. In this review, we discuss the contribution of micro-RNAs (miRs) to the metastatic process of prostate cancer. The criteria for selection of miRs for this review were the availability of preclinical in vivo metastasis-related data in conjunction with prognostic clinical data. Depending on their function in the metastatic process, the corresponding miRs are up- or down-regulated in prostate cancer tissues when compared to matching normal tissues. Up-regulated miRs pr...
Source: Cancer Genomics and Proteomics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Background: Docetaxel (DOC), or Taxotere, is an anthracycline antibiotic used to treat multiple types of cancer. It is a first-line chemotherapy treatment for patients with metastasized, hormone-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) or for patients with high-risk, localized PCa that could benefit from early chemotherapy treatment. Previously, we showed that stearidonic acid (SDA), an omega-3 fatty acid, enhances the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) in human PCa cells. This observation suggests that PCa therapies using SDA and chemotherapeutic drugs in combination offer attractive possibilities for developing treatments that ame...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conclusions: This case report draws attention to the development of atypical RRD after administration of docetaxel and advises careful follow-up even if RRD does not appear after the first docetaxel administration.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
1499Objectives: PSMA-targeting PET tracers have become available for imaging due to the over expression of PSMA in prostate cancer (PC) lesions. 68Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC (68Ga-PSMA-611, ABX) PET/CT represents a clinically relevant and commonly used technique for the evaluation of these patients. 68Ga labeled compounds are produced with generators providing limited activity per synthesis (1 to 4 patients per batch). 18F-labelled tracers, like Al18F-PSMA-HBED-CC (Al18F-PSMA-611, ABX), can be produced in larger scale with a lower positron energy that potentially offers higher image quality as well as the possibility to acquire late ...
Source: Journal of Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Authors: Tags: Prostate Posters Source Type: research
Chemotherapeutic Docetaxel (Doc) is the standard of care for the hormone resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). However, many HRPC patients do not respond to Doc chemotherapy in a long-term treatment because the cancerous tissue acquires resistance to Doc treatment. The molecular mechanism underlying the development of Doc resistance in HRPC remains unclear.
Source: The Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Prostate Cancer: Basic Research & Pathophysiology III Source Type: research
We report a 75-year-old man with unsuspected involvement of Virchow node from prostate cancer observed using 18F-choline PET/CT.
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the most difficult cancers to treat especially when it becomes hormone resistant such as castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and subsequent metastatic CRPC. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetic modifications also play an important role in the development and neoplastic progression of this disease. These include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding microRNAs. miRNAs are a novel class of small endogenous single-stranded non-coding RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that typically silence gene expression. Considering the reversib...
Source: Current Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Curr Mol Med Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated whole genome target gene profiles and intracellular behaviors of VDR after administration of 25D3 or 1,25D3 in prostate cancer LNCaP cells to elucidate the hormonal activity of 25D3. First, we confirmed that LNCaP cells possessed functional 25D3-VDR as well as 1,25D3-VDR signaling systems by qRT-PCR. By immunofluorescent examination of nuclear translocation, western blotting and most importantly, knockdown o f CYP27B1 and/or VDR after the introduction of the respective siRNA into these cells, we found that, just like 1,25D3, 10-7 M of 25D3, which is within its uppermost physiological concentr...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Abstract Most prostate cancers initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy, but then progress from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent prostate cancers. In the present study, a differential cytotoxicity screen of hormone-resistant prostate cancer LNCaP-hr cells and the parental LNCaP-FGC cells against normal MRC5 fibroblast cells, identified a small molecule compound, Aristeromycin (a derivative of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNeP)). The molecular target was shown to be S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (AHCY), which catalyzes reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and L-homocyste...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
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