What Treatment is Available for Malaria?
Discussion Malaria is a life-threatening yet preventable and curable disease caused by parasites. In humans, there are 4 species that cause malaria: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae,and Plasmodium ovale. Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly and Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most common. Plasmodium parasites are transmitted by bites from Anopheles mosquitoes from an infected human. The incubation period is 7-30 days. In 2012, it is estimated to have caused 627,000 deaths mostly among African children. Mortality rates have been decreasing but children, pregnant women, people with HIV/AIDs and immigrants and international travelers from non-endemic areas are most at risk. At risk is ~50% of the world’s population with ongoing transmission in 97 countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa, but also Asia, Latin America, the Middle East and Europe. Prevention is key. Insecticidal spraying and especially consistent use of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets are important strategies. There are problems with use of the nets including general wear. The World Health Organization is beginning research to evaluate real-world use of mosquito nets and potential strategies to increase their use and longevity. A vaccine is also being evaluated in clinical trials. Malaria is usually categorized into uncomplicated or severe disease. People with uncomplicated malaria usually will have fever, chills, sweats, headaches, body aches, na...
Hippocrates (460-371 bc) first recognized the relationship between the neuropsychological and physiologic changes observed in liver disease (Figs. 1 and 2). At that time, Hippocrates noted that there was a poor clinical outcome associated with delirium that was preceded by jaundice.1
We present a brief overview of the potential prophylactic and treatment agents under investigation, some which could be initiated in the ED if proven effective.
[Daily Maverick] While the promise of repositioning 'old' drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is tantalising, it is critical that the hazards of using unapproved treatments are shared with the public to prevent needless fatalities and supply shortages that may further burden already strained healthcare systems.
[The Herald] Government is working on utilising tuberculosis and HIV testing machines to run Covid-19 tests.
Is HIV self-testing an acceptable and usable testing option? The authors report the experiences of participants utilizing this intervention.HIV Medicine
[Thomson Reuters Foundation] London/Mexico City -HIV-positive people on anti-retroviral drugs with normal CD4 levels are not at a higher risk from COVID-19
[Daily Maverick] Professor Gita Ramjee, who recently returned from a trip to London, had been admitted to hospital with pneumonia. She was Chief Scientific Officer at the Aurum Institute and former chief specialist scientist and director of the South African Medical Research Council's (SAMRC) HIV Prevention Research Unit. She died in an Umhlanga hospital on Tuesday from Covid-19 related complications.
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2020Source: LWTAuthor(s): Feng Wang, Yizhong Zhang, Ling Xu, Haile Ma
Contributor : Johannes TextorSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensCancer vaccines utilizing naturally circulating dendritic cell (DC) subsets, such as plasmacutoid DCs (pDCs) and type 2 convential DCs (cDC2s), have demonstrated their potential as a therapy. For melanoma in recent clinical trials. These DC vaccines aim to. human. DC subsets on the. T cell transcriptional program, which. forms the. molecular. basis. of an. antitumor. T cell response, is. poorly understood. In. this study, we investigated the eraly gene expressionsignature of CD8+ T. cells following. stimulati...
Contributors : Lucas C Pantaleao ; Susan E Ozanne ; Ania WilczynskaSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusObesity during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth restriction in the offspring. We used RNA next generation sequencing analysis (HiSeq2000) to have a snapshot of the placenta transcriptome at embryonic day 19 to examine whether mice exposed to maternal obesity had significant changes in their transcriptome which may lead to growth restriction in the fetus.
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