The Laser Probe, The iKnife and The Cutting Edge of Surgery

If the thought of going under the knife fills you with fear, be reassured. No longer is surgery the brutal and hazardous experience faced by our ancestors. Thanks to wonders such as laparoscopy, robotic solutions, and, more recently, the iKnife and the laser probe, surgical intervention is getting safer all the time. Archaeologists believe that people have been carrying out surgery for up to 11,000 years. Cranial surgery, known as trephination, probably dates back to the Neolithic era. It involved drilling a hole in the skull of a living person. Speculation suggests it was done to cure disorders such as convulsions, fractures, headaches, and infections. The Ancient Egyptians used the same operation for "letting out" headaches and migraine. From 1812 onward, the New England Journal of Medicine offers accounts of procedures that would now be considered gruesome, such as passing a hook through a man's pupil during the removal of a cataract, and using leeches for bloodletting. Pioneers of their time, both surgeons and patients displayed remarkable courage. Leap from there to the present, and you have minimally invasive surgery where even a heart transplant is now relatively routine. From January 1988 to July 2016, 64,055 cardiac transplants have taken place in the United States, according to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Advances in minimally invasive surgery In 1987, a French gynecologist performed the first recognized laparoscopic surgery to re...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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SMAD4 is the only common SMAD in TGF-β signaling that usually impedes immune cell activation in the tumor microenvironment. However, we demonstrated here that selective deletion of Smad4 in NK cells actually led to dramatically reduced tumor cell rejection and augmented tumor cell metastases, reduced murine CMV clearance, as well as impeded NK cell homeostasis and maturation. This was associated with a downregulation of granzyme B (Gzmb), Kit, and Prdm1 in Smad4-deficient NK cells. We further unveiled the mechanism by which SMAD4 promotes Gzmb expression. Gzmb was identified as a direct target of a transcriptional com...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The stroma of solid tumors can exclude or limit immune infiltration, or lead to the recruitment of tumor-promoting rather than tumor-attacking immune cells. This finding was reported by Jayaprakash et al. in this issue of the JCI, and it was particularly prominent in the hypoxic zones of tumors in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) cancer models. A current clinical goal of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) is to extend its utility to more patients by converting immunologically “cold” tumors that do not provoke a strong immunological response to “hot” tumors that are invaded b...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Despite the success of immune checkpoint blockade against melanoma, many “cold” tumors like prostate cancer remain unresponsive. We found that hypoxic zones were prevalent across preclinical prostate cancer and resisted T cell infiltration even in the context of CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade. We demonstrated that the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 reduces or eliminates hypoxia in these tumors. Combination therapy with this hypoxia-prodrug and checkpoint blockade cooperated to cure more than 80% of tumors in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate–derived (TRAMP-derived) TRAMP-C2 model. Immunofluo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The paper, titled 'Debt or Death?', used data on 9.5 million nationally-representative patients between 1998 and 2014, who spend an average of $92,098 a year trying to stay alive.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Source: Peerview CME/CE Video Podcast - Internal Medicine International - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Science, Medicine Source Type: video
Conclusion: GSTP1 and CYPs expressions are increased in intracranial tumors. These results should be confirmed with larger series and different enzyme subtypes.
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
The start-up ’s optofluidic system could help get personalized cancer cell therapies to more people
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: European Journal of Surgical OncologyAuthor(s): Han-Yu Deng, Liang Hou, Panpan Zha, Kai-Li Huang, Lei PengAbstractBackgroundWhether sarcopenia has any impact on long-term survival of patients with surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis focusing on current topic comprehensively for the first time.MethodsWe systematically searched relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library up to July 3, 2018. Data of 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates as well as hazard ratio (HR)...
Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Three-dimensional mammography screening detected 34 percent more breast cancer tumors than the traditional process of a single image, according to a study.
Source: Health News - UPI.com - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation are effective for clinical remission and clinical response in ulcerative colitis, a meta-analytic review suggests.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Gastroenterology News Source Type: news
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