The choroid plexus in health and in disease: Dialogues into and out of the brain.

This article brings the choroid plexus into the context of health and disease. It is remarkable that the choroid plexus, composed by the monolayer of epithelial cells that lie in a highly vascularized stroma, floating within the brain ventricles, gets so little attention in major physiology and medicine text books and in the scientific literature in general. Consider that it is responsible for producing most of the about 150mL of cerebrospinal fluid that fills the brain ventricles and the subarachnoid space and surrounds the spinal cord in the adult human brain, which is renewed approximately 2-3 times daily. As such, its activity influences brain metabolism and function, which will be addressed. Reflect that it contains an impressive number of receptors and transporters, both in the apical and basolateral sides of the epithelial cells, and as such is a key structure for the communication between the brain and the periphery. This will be highlighted in the context of neonatal jaundice, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Realize that the capillaries that lie on the choroid plexus stroma do not possess tight junctions and that the blood flow to the choroid plexus is five times higher than that in the brain parenchyma, allowing for a rapid sensing system and delivery of molecules such as nutrients and metals as will be revised. Recognize that certain drugs reach the brain parenchyma solely through the choroid plexus epithelia, which has potential to be manipulated in di...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related DisordersAuthor(s): Brenda Bertado-Cortés, Claudia Venzor-Mendoza, Daniel Rubio-Ordoñez, José Renán Pérez-Pérez, Lucy Andrea Novelo-Manzano, Lyda Viviana Villamil-Osorio, María de Jesús Jiménez-Ortega, María de la Luz Villalpando-Gueich, Nayeli Alejandra Sánchez-Rosales, Verónica García-Talavera
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Paramagnetic rims might be a characteristic MRI finding for MS, and therefore they have potential as an imaging marker for differentially diagnosing MS from NMOSD using 3-T MRI. PMID: 33029961 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Clinical Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: J Clin Neurol Source Type: research
Authors: Suoh M, Hagihara A, Yamamura M, Maruyama H, Taira K, Enomoto M, Tamori A, Fujiwara Y, Kawada N Abstract An 82-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma presented with upper abdominal pain, vomiting, and jaundice. He had been taking a standard lenvatinib dose for three months. Although acute cholangitis was suggested, imaging studies failed to detect the biliary obstruction site. An endoscopic examination following discontinuation of lenvatinib and aspirin revealed multiple duodenal ulcers, one of which was formed on the ampulla of Vater and causing cholestasis. Endoscopic biliary drainage and antibiotics ...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Aβ-Induced Repressor Element 1-Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) Gene Delivery Suppresses Activation of Microglia-Like BV-2 Cells. Neural Plast. 2020;2020:8888871 Authors: Yu T, Quan H, Xu Y, Dou Y, Wang F, Lin Y, Qi X, Zhao Y, Liu X Abstract Compelling evidence from basic molecular biology has demonstrated the crucial role of microglia in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglia were believed to play a dual role in both promoting and inhibiting Alzheimer's disease progression. It is of great significance to regulate the function of microglia and make them develop in a favorabl...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
In this study, we used UPLC-MS to generate a chromatographic fingerprinting of BTF and identified five possible active ingredients, including stilbene glycoside; epimedin A1, B, and C; and icariin. We also showed that oral administration of BTF reversed the cognitive defects in an Aβ 1-42 fibril-infused rat model of AD, protected synaptic ultrastructure in the CA1 region, and restored the expression of BDNF, synaptotagmin (Syt), and PSD95. These effects likely occurred through the BDNF-activated receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB)/Akt/CREB signaling pathway. Furthermore, BTF exhibited no short-term or chronic toxicity i...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
Abstract As the global population ages, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases has risen. Furthermore, it has been suggested that depression, especially in elderly people, may also be an indication of latent neurodegeneration. Stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease (PD) are usually accompanied by depression. The urgent challenge is further enforced by psychiatric comorbid conditions, particularly the feeling of despair in these patients. Fortunately, as our understanding of the neurobiological substrates of maladies affecting the central nervous system (CNS) has increased, more therapeutic ...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
Abstract Objectives: Retina abnormalities are related to cognitive disorders in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Retinal amyloid beta (Aβ) can be labeled by curcumin. We measured Aβ content in the cerebrum and retina of APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP) transgenic mice with early age to investigate the correlation between cerebrum and retina. Methods: APP mice and age-matched wild-type mice were investigated every month from age 2 months to 6 months to assess changes in Aβ content in the retina and cerebrum. At the beginning of each month, mice were fed a curcumin diet (50 mg/kg/day) for 7 cons...
Source: Behavioural Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Neurol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that these two polymorphisms do not contribute to AD in the population from the Mersin region of the Eastern Mediterranean. Further studies with larger sample sizes must be conducted to ascertain the association between the 2 polymorphisms. PMID: 33031695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: P R Health Sci J Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Volume 46Author(s): Alfredo Damasceno, Luciana Ramalho Pimentel-Silva, Benito Pereira Damasceno, Fernando Cendes
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2020Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Volume 46Author(s): Miceline Mésidor, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, Ruth Ann Marrie, Marie-Claude Rousseau
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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