Neurochemical Compartmentalization within the Pigeon Basal Ganglia

Publication date: Available online 22 August 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Laura L. Bruce, Jonathan T. Erichsen, Anton Reiner The goals of this study were to use multiple informative markers to define and characterize the neurochemically distinct compartments of the pigeon basal ganglia, especially striatum and accumbens. To this end, we used antibodies against 12 different neuropeptides, calcium-binding proteins or neurotransmitter-related enzymes that are enriched in the basal ganglia. Our results clarify boundaries between previously described basal ganglia subdivisions in birds, and reveal considerable novel heterogeneity within these previously described subdivisions. Sixteen regions were identified that each displayed a unique neurochemical organization. Four compartments were identified within the dorsal striatal region. The neurochemical characteristics support previous comparisons to part of the central extended amygdala, somatomotor striatum, and associational striatum of mammals, respectively. The medialmost part of the medial striatum, however, has several unique features, including prominent pallidal-like woolly fibers and thus may be a region unique to birds. Four neurochemically distinct regions were identified within the pigeon ventral striatum: the accumbens, paratubercular striatum, ventrocaudal striatum, and the ventral area of the lateral part of the medial striatum that is located adjacent to these regions. The pigeon accumbens ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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This study concludes that both the crow viruses caused morbidity and mortality in mice and the viruses were phenotypically highly virulent in mice. The H5N1 viruses isolated from synanthropes pose a serious public health concern and should be monitored continuously for their human spill-over.
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Xiaohui Mu, Ruxia Gao, Wenhua Xiao, Qingqing Gao, Chunguang Cao, Huiqinq Xu, Song Gao, Xiufan LiuAbstractExtraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) shows an enhanced ability to cause infection outside the intestinal tract. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), one type of ExPEC, causes avian colibacillosis, a disease of significant economic importance to poultry producers worldwide that is characterized by systemic infection. Some ExPEC strains as well as other pathogenic enterobacteria produce enterobactin, a catecholate siderop...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
China's agriculture ministry said on Tuesday it had found the highly pathogenic H5N6 strain of avian flu in swans in its western Xinjiang region.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
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Source: Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Ukraine has reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic bird flu on a farm in the west-central part of the country, the first of such outbreak in nearly three years, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) said on Monday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Slovakia detected its second case of the highly pathogenic H5N8 bird flu virus at a farm in the west of the country, the Agriculture Ministry said on Monday.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
China's agriculture ministry said on Monday it had detected the highly pathogenic H5N6 strain of avian flu in swans in its western Xinjiang region.
Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
Short-eared Owl at Burwell Fen, photographed mid-January One evening in late November, I was once again, hoping to catch sight of the Starling murmurations that occur over the Broad Lane balancing pond. As mentioned in a previous, issue the local Starlings and their continental counterparts will often roost in the reed bed there, last winter there were literally thousands. At the time of writing, just a few hundred are roosting, but that can change on a wind as arrivals from Europe turn up when the weather changes. Anyway, reader Alison waved as she passed the pond on her dog walk. I later heard that she’d seen a scu...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Birds Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Food ControlAuthor(s): Valeriy G. Narushin, Gang Lu, James Cugley, Michael N. Romanov, Darren K. GriffinAbstractEgg volume and surface area are reliable predictors of quality traits for both table and hatching chicken eggs. A new non-destructive technique for the fast and accurate evaluation of these two egg variables is addressed in the present study. The proposed method is based on the geometrical transformation of actual egg contour into a well-known geometrical figure which shape most of all resembles the examined egg. The volume and surface area of an examined ...
Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: Respiratory Care - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Influenza Other Respir Viruses Source Type: research
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