USMLE Step 1 stumper: Can you answer it correctly?

The United States Medical Licensing Examination ® (USMLE®) Step 1 exam is notorious for pushing the limits of medical students’ knowledge, so you might like to know which test prep questions are commonly missed. Check out this month’s question that Kaplan Medical says stumps most students, and view an expert video explanation of the answer. Welcome to this month ’s installment of the AMA Wire® series, Tutor talk: Tips from Kaplan Medical on the most missed USMLE test prep questions from Kaplan’s Qbank: Step 1. Each month, we’re revealing the top questions physicians in training miss on the USMLE, a helpful analysis of answers and videos featuring tips on how to advance your test-ta king strategies. See all posts in this series. Think you have what it takes to rise above your peers? Test your USMLE knowledge below. Ready. Set. Go.This month ’s question that stumped most students:   The diagram shows changes in blood pressure and heart rate in an animal with intact reflexes in response to drug X (agonist) and drug Y (antagonist). Assume that the antagonist's effects will last for the duration of the experiment and that the agonist's effects are transient. Drug X and drug Y are most likely to be which of the following? A.  X=Isoproterenol/Y=Atropine B.  X=Isoproterenol/Y=Phentolamine C.  X=Isoproterenol/Y=Propranolol D.  X=Norepinephrine/Y=Atropine E.  X=Norepinephrine/Y=Phentol...
Source: AMA Wire - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Source Type: news

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This study seeks to examine human vibration response using a musculoskeletal model that appropriately considers stretch reflex. The stretch reflex is modeled with a feedback control approach, and integrated into a generic musculoskeletal model to study the active muscle forces during seated whole body vibration. The model is used to investigate the effects of stretch reflex gain, vibration frequency and vibration magnitude on transmissibility from the seat to upper body and lower body and on muscle activations.The overall model is validated by comparison with thoracic and lumbar muscle activities measured in human particip...
Source: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Reumatología Clínica (English Edition)Author(s): Adriana Ivonne Céspedes Cruz, Myriam Méndez Núñez, Eunice Solís Vallejo, Maritza Zeferino Cruz, Alfonso Ragnar Torres Jiménez, Verónica Ocampo Sánchez, Beatriz Flores Meza, Norma Quintana RuizAbstractIntroductionJuvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterised by the presence of arthritis in children under 16 years of age for more than 6 weeks in the absence of any other known cause.The extra-articular manifestations, ...
Source: Reumatologia Clinica - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Objectives: Tumor factors that influence vestibular function in vestibular schwannoma (VS) have not been properly described. We evaluated whether cystic VSs have different vestibular function than solid VS. Tumor size on vestibular function was also evaluated. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Forty-one cases of sporadic, untreated VS. Intervention: Evaluation with video head impulse test and MRI. Main Outcome Measures: Tumors were classified as solid, heterogeneous, or cystic and by size using the Hannover classification. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain w...
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: TUMORS OF THE EAR AND CRANIAL BASE Source Type: research
Conclusions: Decreased HRV and increased sympathetic tone were observed intraoperatively, indicating high levels of mental stress, particularly with FN dissection. Similar changes were not found during cadaveric dissections.
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: BASIC SCIENCE Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to establish cortical and subcortical contributions to neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive repetitive transspinal stimulation in human subjects free of any neurological disorder. To meet our objectives, before and after 40 minutes of transspinal stimulation we established changes in tibialis anterior (TA) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) consistent with I-wave periodicity. In order to establish to what extent similar actions are exerted at the spinal cord and motor axons, changes in sole...
Source: Neural Plasticity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neural Plast Source Type: research
The objective of the study was to review the effects of opioids on the immune system. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane databases using the terms “ immunosuppression, ” “ immune system, ” “ surgical procedures, ” “ analgesics, ” “ opioids ” and “ perioperative care. ” Results: The immunosuppressive effect of opioids was identified over 30 years ago. They include signaling and acting directly through immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages, as well as activating the do...
Source: Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusion: US-guided ganglion impar block is technically feasible and safe technique. USG can be used to locate sacrococcygeal junction (SCJ) and facilitate the performance of ganglion impar block. The efficacy and safety of the US-guided ganglion impar blockades needs a proper evaluation in the randomized controlled trials.
Source: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Source Type: research
Condition:   Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne and Becker Types Interventions:   Other: multimodal physiotherapy program with RV;   Other: multimodal physiotherapy program Sponsor:   University of Malaga Enrolling by invitation
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSIONS CSAD can suppress LSG neural activity, hence enhance the electrophysiological stability and protect the heart from AMI-triggered VAs. PMID: 30877783 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
We report on the development of a methylation analysis workflow for optical detection of fluorescent methylation profiles along chromosomal DNA molecules. In combination with Bionano Genomics genome mapping technology, these profiles provide a hybrid genetic/epigenetic genome-wide map composed of DNA molecules spanning hundreds of kilobase pairs. The method provides kilobase pair–scale genomic methylation patterns comparable to whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) along genes and regulatory elements. These long single-molecule reads allow for methylation variation calling and analysis of large structural aberrati...
Source: Genome Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: METHOD Source Type: research
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