Invasion Dynamics of Teratogenic Infections in Light of Rubella Control: Implications for Zika Virus

Introduction The impacts of rubella infection during pregnancy have been recognized since the pioneering work of Norman Gregg following introductions of this pathogen into communities in Australia during the Second World War1. Theoretical research into the characteristics of the population burden of pathogens with this unique manifestation followed2; and the teratogenic outcomes of rubella3 and their implications across diverse demographic, epidemiological and control settings4,5,6,7 are currently well described. In particular, in an endemic setting, incomplete vaccination coverage can lead to an increase in the teratogenic burden associated with rubella infection (Congenital Rubella Syndrome, or CRS), an outcome also known as the ‘paradoxical effect’. This occurs because infection with rubella provides lifelong immunity, so that in the absence of vaccination, the average age of infection can be low. Vaccination tends to increase the average age of infection by making the infection rare; and if coverage has not sufficiently reduced incidence to offset this increase, the outcome can be an increase in the burden of CRS2,7. Perhaps the greatest impact theoretical modeling has ever had on public health8 was the resulting restriction of introduction of the rubella-containing vaccine into many parts of the world9. Other than some suggestive patterns from the veterinary literature with Japanese encephalitis and Wesselbron viruses 10, the flaviviruses were not known to b...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research

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ConclusionOur results revealed that mosaicism contributes to a major cause of false negative in NIPS, and highlighted the importance of ultrasound in identifying these false ‐negative results.
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Discussion and conclusionsA schema showing the time from initiation of therapy at which specific antineoplastic agents can cause significant levels of genetic damage in conceptuses and live offspring was developed. The estimates and methods for computing the level of such risk from an individual patient's treatment regimen will enable patients and counselors to make informed decisions on the use of spermatozoa or continuation of a pregnancy.
Source: Andrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
On February 11, the Trump administration issuedfunding opportunity announcements for the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program (TPPP) that indicate a step away from abstinence-only-until-marriage approaches that the administration has been pushing for years.
Source: The Guttmacher Institute - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: news
Hi all! Have a question regarding fellowship but since there is not a general page for fellows, I am posting here. I had my first baby my first year of fellowship. I used all of my vacation time, and another 4 weeks no pay which I have to make up at the end of my fellowship. I am now pregnant again, and still bitter about my short, unpaid maternity leave. So this time I will be taking 16 weeks afforded to me by short term disability and FMLA. I cannot stress enough that my program is... Maternity leave in fellowship
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: General Residency Issues Source Type: forums
ConclusionThis guideline provides evidence ‐based recommendations developed and reviewed by panels of experts and RMD patients. Many recommendations are conditional, reflecting a lack of data or low‐level data. We intend that this guideline be used to inform a shared decision‐making process between patients and their physicians on issu es related to reproductive health that incorporates patients’ values, preferences, and comorbidities.
Source: Arthritis and Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Journal of the American College of RadiologyAuthor(s): Soheil Kooraki, Melina Hosseiny, Lee Myers, Ali Gholamrezanezhad
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Authors: Babiker A, Gaifer Z Abstract Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection caused by the tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus, a cestode endemic in many parts of the world. CE can affect any organ, with the lung being the second most commonly affected organ after the liver. For the management of pulmonary CE, guidelines recommend surgical resection of cysts with adjuvant anti-helminthic therapy. In cases where surgery is not possible, medical therapy alone can be used. However, to date, there is a paucity of data to advocate for one modality over the other. Here, we report two cases of pulmonary CE caus...
Source: Oman Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Rahim MA, Zaman S, Amin MR, Uddin KN, Ma JC Abstract Histoplasmosis is uncommon in many parts of the world, including Bangladesh, where, in recent years, cases are increasingly reported. We sought to describe the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment, and outcome of histoplasmosis in Bangladesh. We conducted a retrospective data review of published literature from 1962 to 2017, containing information on histoplasmosis in and/or from Bangladesh. Unpublished, well-documented histoplasmosis cases were also included. A total of 26 male patients aged 8-75 years, with...
Source: Oman Medical Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: Oman Med J Source Type: research
Funding Opportunity RFA-AI-20-003 from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to solicit applications to support development of promising universal influenza vaccine candidates that protect against both influenza A and B viruses.
Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
Publication date: March–April 2020Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Volume 27, Issue 3Author(s): Meng Yi Gao, Hua Zhu, Fei Yun Zheng
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
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