Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and autoimmune encephalitis.

[Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes and autoimmune encephalitis.] Nervenarzt. 2014 Mar 27; Authors: Stich O, Rauer S Abstract Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are defined as remote effects on the central and peripheral nervous system that are not caused directly by the tumor, its metastases and treatment, or metabolic disorders. The most probable cause is a falsely initiated immune reaction. Well-defined classical PNSs are associated with distinct tumors and occur with onconeural antibodies directed against intracellular neuronal antigens. However, response to therapy is limited. Recently, new antibodies directed against neuronal surface antigens were described in encephalitic syndromes of autoimmune origin. These probably antibody-mediated disorders are more frequent than classical PNS, occur with or without tumor association and often show a good response to immunosuppressive treatment. PMID: 24668402 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Nervenarzt - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Immune-mediated inflammation of the brain has been recognized for more than 50 years, although the initial descriptions were mainly thought to be secondary to an underlying neoplasm. Some of these paraneoplastic encephalitides express serum antibodies, but these were not thought to be pathogenic but instead have a T-cell-mediated pathophysiology. Over the last two decades, several pathogenic antibodies against neuronal surface antigens have been described in autoimmune encephalitis, which are amenable to immunotherapy. Several of these antibodies are directed against glutamate receptors (GluRs). NMDA...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
This article reviews the recent advances on the antibody detection, neuroimaging and treatment of autoimmune encephalitis. AbstractNon ‐infectious encephalitis has been a recognized entity for many years; however, its pathophysiology was not fully understood. Patients (usually women) presented with acute behavioral changes and were admitted to mental hospitals, without a correct diagnosis. With the new advances on antibody detect ion, the non‐infectious encephalitis panorama has been changing. Immune‐mediated diseases of the central nervous system encompass a variety of disorders, including the classic paraneoplastic...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Conclusions We show a clear association between ICI use and increased diagnosis of Ma2-PNS. Physicians need to be aware that ICIs can trigger Ma2-PNS because clinical presentation can be challenging.
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, All Oncology, Paraneoplastic syndrome Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: Brainstem encephalitis is an important differential diagnosis even in seropositive bulbar myasthenia gravis, as several autoimmune processes often co-occur. Sudden unexpected death must be taken into account in brainstem encephalitis, requiring prolonged monitoring of the patients.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Autoimmune encephalitides (AIE) comprise a group of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), which can be further characterized by the presence of different antineuronal antibodies. Recently, a clinical approach for diagnostic criteria for the suspected diagnosis of AIE as well as definitive AIE were proposed. These are intended to guide physicians when to order the antineuronal antibody testing and/or facilitate early diagnosis even prior to the availability of the specific disease-confirming test results to facilitate prompt treatment. These diagnostic criteria also include the results of basic cerebros...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion: A subacute onset, rapidly progressive painful, pure motor quadriparesis; Ganglionopathy in elderly and autoimmune encephalitis with ill sustained or no response to corticosteroids merits consideration of paraneoplastic etiology. PMID: 31321924 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
(University of California - San Francisco) Using advanced technology, scientists at Chan Zuckerberg (CZ) Biohub, Mayo Clinic and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), have discovered an autoimmune disease that appears to affect men with testicular cancer.Called 'testicular cancer-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis,' the disease causes severe neurological symptoms in men. They progressively lose control of their limbs, eye movements, and speech. The disease begins with a testicular tumor, which may cause the immune system to attack the brain.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
New England Journal of Medicine,Volume 381, Issue 1, Page 47-54, July 2019.
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Technology that uncovered antibody has potential to identify other autoimmune diseases ROCHESTER, Minn. -- Using advanced technology, scientists at Chan Zuckerberg (CZ) Biohub, Mayo Clinic and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), have discovered an autoimmune disease that appears to affect men with testicular cancer. Called "testicular cancer-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis," the disease causes severe neurological [...]
Source: Mayo Clinic Research News - Category: Research Source Type: news
AbstractInflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are a diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an important diagnostic consideration in patients with CNS inflammatory disorders; despite of a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms it should be diagnosed as soon as possible and the patient transferred to the neurologist. We studied a group of AE patients (n = 24) as compared to multiple sclerosis (MS,n = 61) and control (n = 19) groups. Detailed clinical pictures of patients are presented. We focused on relevant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ...
Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
More News: Encephalitis | Neurology | Paraneoplastic Syndrome