Medical News Today: MS: Treating earliest signs reduces risk of diagnosis, relapse

Researchers suggest treating the earliest signs of multiple sclerosis with interferon beta-1b could reduce the risk of diagnosis and reduce relapse rate.
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Multiple Sclerosis Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 1 April 2020Source: Redox BiologyAuthor(s): Zeina El Ali, Anthony Ollivier, Sylvie Manin, Michael Rivard, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti
Source: Redox Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractBy the discovery of an antibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the clinical and radiological findings of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) such as diffuse cerebral or longitudinally extended spinal cord lesions had been clarified as distinct features from multiple sclerosis (MS). Pathological studies in NMO demonstrated loss of immunoreactivity to AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein but a relative preservation of myelin basic protein, especially at the lesions with perivascular deposition of immunoglobulins and complements, suggesting autoimmune disease against astrocytes. In recent years, the antibody against myelin oligode...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
We examined the oligodendrocyte‐mediated demyelination and axonal injury. To address this issue, we established a new scanning electron microscopy analysis to observe ultrastructural myelin morphology. In addition, we focused on kallik rein 6, a serine protease, secreted by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and proposed a new molecular mechanism of kallikrein 6‐mediated demyelination. In this article, we discuss the pathological roles of oligodendrocytes in mouse models of EAE. We also highlight recent findings of abnormal myelin formation and axonal injury in EAE.
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractMyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a minor myelin protein localized at the outermost layer of the myelin sheath. Cell ‐based assays to detect conformation‐sensitive MOG‐immunoglobulin G (IgG) have identified a unique group of patients with optic neuritis, acute/multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis, encephalitides (brainstem and cerebral cortical), myelitis and aquaporin‐4 IgG‐negative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. MOG‐IgG‐associated disease affects both children and adults, and the female : male ratio is almost 1:1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination shows ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractConnexins, which comprise gap junctions (GJs) via homotypic/heterotypic oligomerization, act as channels to connect opposing cells, mainly in solid organs such as the skin, liver, heart, and central/peripheral nervous system. Connexins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, assembled in the Golgi apparatus as hexamers, and inserted into the cell membrane as hemichannels. These hemichannels are closed under normal conditions until they combine to form clusters and connect to neighboring cells via GJs in a head ‐to‐head configuration. Opening of hemichannels, which depends on the intra‐ or extracellular ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: REVIEW ARTICLE Source Type: research
Authors: Gökaslan S, Demirbaş H, Özer Gökaslan Ç Abstract BACKGROUND/AIM: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by neurodegeneration or demyelination, and the relapsing?remitting phase of MS is characterized by acute exacerbation of disease activity. The most commonly used non-invasive approach to assess autonomic function is the determination of heart rate turbulence (HRT) and heart rate variability (HRV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction using HRT and HRV parameters determined via 24-hour Holter ECG monitorin...
Source: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences - Category: General Medicine Tags: Turk J Med Sci Source Type: research
A 43 ‐year‐old man who was treated with interferon‐beta for multiple sclerosis was presented with hypertension, headache, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, and renal dysfunction. The treatment with drugs and dialysis relieved the symptoms. Despite plasmapheresis is known to cause improvement in rena l function, no such improvement was seen in patient. AbstractA 43 ‐year‐old man who was treated with interferon‐beta for multiple sclerosis was presented with hypertension, headache, nausea/vomiting, blurred vision, and renal dysfunction. The treatment with drugs and dialysis relieved the symptoms. Despite plasmapher...
Source: Clinical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
Conclusions. EXPAND provides evidence of the efficacy of siponimod compared with placebo, and these MAIC complement this by demonstrating improved efficacy of siponimod relative to DMTs. Siponimod offers a significant therapeutic advance that may slow disease progression compared to other DMTs in an EXPAND-like population with secondary progressive disease. PMID: 32220214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - Category: Research Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research
AbstractNG2 immunopositive progenitor cells, also simply termed as NG2 glia and thought mainly to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), form synaptic connections with neurons in gray and white matters of brain. One of the most classical features of oligodendrocyte lineage cells is myelination, which will favor neuronal signaling transmission. Thus, is there a causal link between the specific synapses of neuron-NG2 glia and myelination? Building on this, here, we will discuss several relevant issues. First, in order to understand the synapses, it is necessary to integrate the definite inputs onto NG2 glia. We show that...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
AbstractIn this independent, multicenter, post-marketing study, we directly compare induction immunosuppression versus escalation strategies on the risk of reaching the disability milestone of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS)  ≥ 6.0 over 10 years in previously untreated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We collected data of patients who started interferon beta (escalation) versus mitoxantrone or cyclophosphamide (induction) as initial treatment. Main eligibility criteria included an EDSS score  ≤ 4.0 at treatment start and either ≥ 2 relapses or 1 ...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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