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The Guardian view on granny orcas: nothing to do with humans | Editorial

Fascinating work is being done on the family life of killer whales. But like research into New Caledonian crows, it has nothing to do with the way we live our livesEvolutionary biologists from British universities havefound new evidence to support their theory that, despite their infertile state,post-menopausal killer whales play a beneficial role in the lives of their grandchildren. The scientists have a serious purpose: they want to find out why orcas go through the menopause, a characteristic shared only by pilot whales and humans. But their work produces delightful insights, starting with the reminder that even orcas, most familiar from blood-soaked natural history documentaries, are in fact family-loving creatures that live in caring extended kinship groups, in which the females usually outlive the males by at least 20 years. So far, so very interesting. The danger comes when others take their research and use it to promote their own view of what constitutes a well-ordered society.Evolutionary biologists have been studying orcas for more than a decade in the search for an evolutionary benefit to the menopause that would explain why it happens. They now conclude that in mammal species where family groups stay together (rather than young males or females being forced to leave), there is a benefit in the form of whatthey term late-life helping. This is not a new idea: it originated in the 1950s. Onemore recent study suggested that it was actually mothering, not gr...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biology Oceans Environment Animals World news Wildlife Science Human biology Sex Life and style Family Evolution Source Type: news

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CONCLUSION: Our results show that Epstein-Barr infection is possibly associated with autoimmune ovarian failure. The devastating impact on fertility in such disorder can be successfully avoided by in vitro maturation of oocytes from excised ovarian tissue. PMID: 29618356 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Reproductive Biology - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Reprod Biol Endocrinol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018 Source:Case Reports in Women's Health Author(s): Ashima Arora, Shameema Anvar Sadath Genital tuberculosis is usually diagnosed in young women being assessed for infertility. After menopause it usually presents with symptoms resembling endometrial malignancy, such as postmenopausal bleeding, persistent vaginal discharge and pyometra. The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or bacteriological culture and/or presence of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Anti-tubercular therapy involves the use of rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. ...
Source: Case Reports in Womens Health - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that a single dose of 5-FU is mildly ovotoxic, but any effects on ovarian function are likely transient because the primordial follicle population is not depleted. Collectively, these data support the notion that 5-FU is unlikely to impact on the long-term fertility of women.
Source: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract It has been more than 15 years since the measurement of serum anti‐Müllerian hormone (AMH) first allowed the quantitative assessment of ovarian reserve. Meanwhile, the clinical implication of serum AMH has been expanding. The measurement of serum AMH has been applied in various clinical fields, including assisted reproduction, menopause, reproductive disorders and assessment of ovarian damage/toxicity. Well‐known findings about the usefulness of serum AMH revealed by numerous studies executed in the early era include decline with aging, a good correlation with oocyte yield in assisted reproduction, upregu...
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Invited Manuscript Source Type: research
Discussion regarding family planning is imperative in women with IBD with a strong recommendation to consider long-acting highly effective contraceptives such as intrauterine devices or implants. Cervical cancer screening should be tailored in women on immunosuppressive medications and all women under 26  years of age should be advised to receive the human papilloma virus vaccination.SummaryAs gastroenterologists will have longitudinal relationships with their female IBD patients, they must be knowledgeable about sex-specific issues during each stage of life from puberty to after menopause to optimize their patient ’s care.
Source: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Abstract Gonadotropins belong to the family of dimeric glycoprotein hormones and regulate gonadal physiology mediated by G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptors. These glycoprotein hormones are widely used in the clinic to promote ovarian follicle development and for treating some cases of male infertility. We traced the co-evolution of dimeric gonadotropin hormones and their receptors, together with thyrotropin and its receptor. We updated recent findings on human genetic variants of these genes and their association with dizygotic twining, polycystic ovarian syndrome, primary ovarian insufficiency, male...
Source: Biology of Reproduction - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Biol Reprod Source Type: research
Abstract Endometriosis is a common and challenging condition of reproductive-aged women that carries a high individual and societal cost. The many molecular dissimilarities between endometriosis lesions and eutopic endometrium create difficulties in the development of new drug therapies and treatments. Surgery remains the gold standard for definitive diagnosis, but it must be weighed against the risks of surgical morbidity and potential decreases in ovarian reserve, especially in the case of endometriomas. Safe and effective surgical techniques are discussed within this article for various presentations of endomet...
Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: In the context of a scarce literature, a formal consensus method allowed the elaboration of guidelines, which will help clinicians in the management of these patients. PMID: 29397916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bulletin du Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Bull Cancer Source Type: research
In this study, we review germ cell toxicity, which occurs during the treatment of hematologic malignancies, and propose guidelines for fertility preservation in younger patients with hematologic malignancies. PMID: 29376015 [PubMed]
Source: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine - Category: Reproduction Medicine Tags: Clin Exp Reprod Med Source Type: research
Conclusions Except for the risk of premature ovarian failure, a rare adverse effect of combined treatments, both single-agent and multiagent chemotherapy can be safely administered to patients with a desire for childbearing. High-risk patients have worse reproductive outcomes because they undergo hysterectomy more frequently than low-risk patients.
Source: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Gestational Cancer Source Type: research
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