When Is the Clinical Nadir for Guillain-Barr é Syndrome?

Discussion Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acquired, acute, inflammatory, demyelinating polyneuropathy. It is the most common cause of acute and subacute flaccid paralysis in children. GBS causes about 0.4-1.3 cases per 100,000 persons/year in children. It can occur in any age group and the incidence increases among all age groups until a peak in the 50s. Both genders are affected and there may be a slight increase in males. GBS usually occurs 2-4 weeks after a prodromonal gastroenteritis or respiratory illness. It is most often associated with Campylobacter jejunae, Haemophilus infuenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes simplex virus. There are some possible associations with GBS and influenza A vaccination but it has not been associated with other vaccines. GBS causes autoantibody production against Schwann cells of the neuron and the axon itself. There is an increase in anti-ganglioside antibodies which can be specifically identified in about 50% of children. Surgery may also trigger antibody production. Classically GBS is a symmetric, progressive ascending muscle weakness and/or paralysis usually first occurring in the legs and then ascending to the upper extremities usually over days to weeks. Areflexia or diminished deep tendon reflexes are early signs (usually first week) if the patient comes to attention. Reflexes can be preserved in some patients though. Sensory changes including pain or paraesthesia can be a first s...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Authors: Noda A, Sakai T, Obara T, Miyazaki M, Tsuchiya M, Oyanagi G, Murai Y, Mano N Abstract BACKGROUND: There are no reports on investigations of the characteristics of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports for pediatric patients in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER) and the utility of database for drug safety surveillance in these patients. METHOD: We aimed to evaluate ADR reports for pediatric patients in the JADER. We used spontaneous ADR reports included in the JADER since April 1, 2004, to December 31, 2017, which was downloaded in April 2018. In a total of 504,407 ADR reports, the nu...
Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: BMC Pharmacol Toxicol Source Type: research
Authors: Ambrosino I, Barbagelata E, Ortona E, Ruggieri A, Massiah G, Giannico OV, Politi C, Moretti AM Abstract In December 2019 a novel coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China causing many cases of severe pneumonia. World Health Organization (WHO) named this disease Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The infection has rapidly spread across China to many other countries, and on March 12, 2020 the WHO declared pandemic outbreak of COVID-19. As of May 16, 2020, COVID-19 has been diagnosed in more than 4,490,000 patients, associated to 305,976 deaths worldwide; in Italy 224,760 COVID-19 cases have been reported with 31...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The manifestations of COVID-19 at presentation were similar to those seen in other reports. Our population was older, slightly overrepresented by women and had a high level of co-morbidity. COVID-19 admittance was associated with frequent need of intensive care and mechanical ventilation that was associated with a very high mortality. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. PMID: 32448405 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Danish Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Dan Med J Source Type: research
In the May 2020 issue of BioScience, AIBS President Dr. Charles Fenster and Executive Director Dr. Robert Gropp urge governments to coordinate to promote greater understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, including the development of a vaccine. They further call on governments to “build the infrastructure needed to foster timely scientific exchange and the conversion of scientific information into responsible public policy - both domestically and internationally, for the current and future crises.” They further warn, “Understanding the origins of the current global health crisis resulting from the novel c...
Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
We reported that, while autophagy was necessary for β cell survival, the highly conserved Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD protein complex was required for the maintenance of β cell maturation and identity. Using single-cell RNA-Seq, we demonstrated that Sel1L deficiency was not associated with β cell loss, but rather loss of β cell identity. Sel1L-Hrd1 ERAD controlled β cell identity via TGF-β signaling, in part by mediating the degradation of TGF-β receptor 1. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling in Sel1L-deficient β cells augmented the expression of β cell maturation markers and increased the t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Vaccination is a mainstay in preventive medicine, reducing morbidity and mortality from infection, largely by generating pathogen-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, standard immunization strategies are insufficient with increasing age due to immunological impediments, including defects in T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we found that Tfh generation is inversely linked to the expression of the ecto-NTPDase CD39 that modifies purinergic signaling. The lineage-determining transcription factor BCL6 inhibited CD39 expression, while increased Tfh frequencies were found in individuals with a germline polymorphism p...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Tomiyama H, Shiina K Abstract The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (brachial-ankle PWV), which is measured simply by wrapping pressure cuffs around the four extremities, is a simple marker to assess the stiffness of the medium- to large- sized arteries. The accuracy and reproducibility of its measurement have been confirmed to be acceptable. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially advanced age and high blood pressure, are reported to be associated with an increase of the arterial stiffness. Furthermore, arterial stiffness might be involved in a vicious cycle with the development/progression o...
Source: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis - Category: Cardiology Tags: J Atheroscler Thromb Source Type: research
Authors: Kobayashi M, Satoh H, Matsuo T, Kusunoki Y, Tokushima M, Watada H, Namba M, Kitamura T Abstract Glucagon dysfunction as well as insulin dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, it is still unclear whether the measurement of plasma glucagon levels is useful in understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM. We recently reported that sandwich ELISA provides more accurate plasma glucagon values than conventional RIA in healthy subjects. Here we used sandwich ELISA as well as RIA to assess plasma glucagon levels, comparing them in T2DM patients and healthy subjects during ...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
The firm will develop viral vector vaccines from IAVI and Themis Bioscience, and the experimental EIDD-2801 antiviral compound developed by Ridgeback Biotherapeutics
Source: Chemical and Engineering News - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that Fc molecule facilitate immune responses and PEDV harbouring Fc molecule could be a possible vaccine candidate. However, a challenge experiment would be needed to investigate the protective efficacy of PEDV harbouring Fc. PMID: 32448096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
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