Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014.

Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes 001 and 176 - the common denominator of C. difficile infection epidemiology in the Czech Republic, 2014. Euro Surveill. 2016 Jul 21;21(29) Authors: Krutova M, Matejkova J, Kuijper EJ, Drevinek P, Nyc O, Czech Clostridium difficile study group Abstract In 2014, 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic participated in a survey of the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in the country. The mean CDI incidence was 6.1 (standard deviation (SD):7.2) cases per 10,000 patient bed-days and 37.8 cases (SD: 41.4) per 10,000 admissions. The mean CDI testing frequency was 39.5 tests (SD: 25.4) per 10,000 patient bed-days and 255.8 tests (SD: 164.0) per 10,000 admissions. A total of 774 C. difficile isolates were investigated, of which 225 (29%) belonged to PCR ribotype 176, and 184 isolates (24%) belonged to PCR ribotype 001. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) revealed 27 clonal complexes formed by 84% (190/225) of PCR ribotype 176 isolates, and 14 clonal complexes formed by 77% (141/184) of PCR ribotype 001 isolates. Clonal clusters of PCR ribotypes 176 and 001 were observed in 11 and 7 hospitals, respectively. Our data demonstrate the spread of two C. difficile PCR ribotypes within 18 hospitals in the Czech Republic, stressing the importance of standardising CDI testing protocols and implementing mandatory CDI surveillance in the country. PMID: 27484171 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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ConclusionsIt has already been observed that low antibody levels are associated with recurrent CDI (Bauer et al., 2014). The findings of our clinical trial show a similar trend. Our developed ELISA test could help to conduct further research and it might be helpful in clinical use to detect patients of high risk for CDI recurrence.
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur model that included novel biomarkers of BUN-to-SCr ratio and glucose have a higher predictive performance of 30-day mortality and prolonged ICU stay following CDI than do the guidelines.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Clostridium difficile (CD) is a common pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal inflammatory diarrhea in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy. Its virulence derives from two toxins, toxin CD, A &B (TcdA and TcdB) (10). Among the prime candidates for CD colonization are patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), who are routinely treated with antibiotics and frequently hospitalized. Indeed, ~50% of CF patients are colonized with virulent forms of CD but do not exhibit diarrhea (7, 9, 61). We found that TcdB has global effects on colonic cells, including reducing the steady-state levels of sodium proton ...
Source: Am J Physiol Gastroi... - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research
Abstract High-throughput small molecule screening in drug discovery processes commonly rely on fluorescence-based methods including fluorescent polarization and fluorescence/Förster resonance energy transfer. These techniques use highly accessible instrumentation, however may suffer from high false negative rates and background signals or, may involve complex schemes for the introduction of fluorophore pairs. Herein, we present the synthesis and application of fluorescent nucleoside analogues as the foundation for directed approaches for competitive binding analyses. The general approach describes s...
Source: Chembiochem - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chembiochem Source Type: research
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Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In Reply We appreciate the comments rendered by Kanemoto et al and Ng et al in response to our study reporting surgical trends in the management of Clostridium difficile colitis. We used the National Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payor administrative database available in the United States, to derive the study cohort.
Source: JAMA Surgery - Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research
To the Editor Juo et al found that no significant difference was observed between loop ileostomy (LI) and total abdominal colectomy (TAC) for treating fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis (FCDC) in their retrospective cohort study. The overall in-hospital mortality rate for patients undergoing surgery for FCDC was 30.1%, with no significant difference between LI and TAC (26.0% vs 31.1%; P  = .28). The findings would be beneficial for patients with FCDC because LI could be less invasive and maintain physiologic functions of colon compared with TAC. However, we are concerned about the higher rates of operati...
Source: JAMA Surgery - Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research
Purpose of review Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat worldwide, with deaths associated with AMR infections projected to exceed 10 million per year by the year 2050. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics is the primary driver of this resistance, with up to 50% of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital setting being either unnecessary or inappropriate. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs (ASPs) can mitigate some of this resistance, with the benefits well recognized; however, if we are to truly advance the state of AMS, the principles and practices should align with patient safety. Recent findings In ...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS: BACTERIAL/FUNGAL: Edited by Monica Slavin Source Type: research
Abstract Clostridioides difficile and Staphylococcus aureus are two well-known pathogens both causing hospital- and community-acquired infections. However, their intestinal coexistence was not well investigated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Herein, we explored the prevalence of C. difficile, S. aureus and their coexistence in the gut of Iranian patients with IBD. Fecal and colon specimens were obtained from 70 outpatients with underlying IBD, and investigated for the presence of C. difficile and S. aureus. C. difficile isolates were characterised by CE-ribotyping. PCR was used for detection of toxin-encodin...
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
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