Enhanced surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection occurring outside hospital, England, 2011 to 2013.

Enhanced surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection occurring outside hospital, England, 2011 to 2013. Euro Surveill. 2016 Jul 21;21(29) Authors: Fawley WN, Davies KA, Morris T, Parnell P, Howe R, Wilcox MH, Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) Working Group Abstract There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)-Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN) up to 10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or less than 48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks. Patient demographics and C. difficile PCR ribotypes were compared for CA-CDIs in our study and presumed healthcare-associated (HA) CDIs via CDRN. Ribotype diversity indices, ranking and relative prevalences were very similar in CA- vs HA-CDIs, although ribotypes 002 (p ≤ 0.0001),020 (p = 0.009) and 056 (p 
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research

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Abstract Human enteropathogen Clostridium difficile constitutes a key public health issue in industrialized countries. Many aspects of C. difficile pathophysiology and adaptation inside the host remain poorly understood. We have recently reported that this bacterium possesses an active CRISPR-Cas system of subtype I-B for defence against phages and other mobile genetic elements that could contribute to its success during infection. In this paper, we demonstrate that redirecting this endogenous CRISPR-Cas system towards autoimmunity allows efficient genome editing in C. difficile We provide detailed description of ...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Clostridioides difficile is the major etiologic agent of nosocomial bacterial diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI)involves two cytotoxic enzymes (TcdA, TcdB) that cause colonic epithelial damage, fluid accumulation and enteritis. CDI has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species and some reports have recently raised the importance of wild animals as a reservoir of this pathogen and possible transmission to humans and domestic animals. The aim of this study was to characterize C. difficile isolates obtained from pet dogs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ...
Source: Anaerobe - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: CDI incidence achieved a peak in 2009/2010 coinciding with the introduction of alcohol-based hand products, increase in quinolone and carbapenem prescription and a possible outbreak of an epidemic strain. Female gender, LTCF residency and exposure to three or more antibiotics are risk factors for refractory and recurrent CDI. We emphasize the need to restrict use of large spectrum antibiotics. PMID: 30343987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In summary, these findings demonstrate that surotomycin and vancomycin have similar effects on exotoxin production and sporulation by C. difficile in vitro. Furthermore, since spores contribute to recurrent infection, the ability of surotomycin to suppress spore formation may explain its ability to disrupt the reinfection cycle in the clinical setting. PMID: 30307842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 004 A medical student who has just returned from their elective in Nepal presents with 1 week of bloody diarrhoea. He has been in the lowlands and stayed with a family in the local village he was helping at. It started three days before he left and he decided to get home on the plane in the hope it would settle. He is now opening his bowels 10x a day with associated cramps, fevers and has started feeling dizzy. Questions: Q1. What is dyse...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine amoebic dysentery bacillary dysentery e.histolytica entamoeba histolytica shigellosis Source Type: blogs
rtner B Abstract Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile is the main cause for nosocomial diarrhoea in industrialised nations. Epidemiologic data on the pathogen's occurrence in other world regions are still scarce. In this context we characterized with phenotypic and molecular genetic methods C. difficile isolates stemming from hospitalised patients with diarrhoea in Lebanon. From 129 stool samples of symptomatic patients at a tertiary care University hospital in Lebanon, a total of 107 C. difficile strains were cultivated and underwent ribotyping, toxin gene detection and antibiotic resistance testing. Ribotype 0...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Authors: Couturier J, Davies K, Gateau C, Barbut F Abstract Clostridium difficile is a major bacterial cause of post-antibiotic diarrhoea. The epidemiology of C. difficile infections (CDI) has dramatically changed since the early 2000s, with an increasing incidence and severity across Europe. This trend is partly due to the emergence and rapid worldwide spread of the hypervirulent and epidemic PCR ribotype 027. Profiles of patients with CDI have also evolved, with description of community-acquired (CA) infections in patients with no traditional risk factors for CDI. However, recent epidemiological studies indicated...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile .
Source: Eurosurveillance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
There are limited national epidemiological data for community-associated (CA)- Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Between March 2011 and March 2013, laboratories in England submitted to the Clostridium difficile Ribotyping Network (CDRN)?up to?10 diarrhoeal faecal samples from successive patients with CA-CDI, defined here as C. difficile toxin-positive diarrhoea commencing outside hospital (or?less than?48 hours after hospital admission), including those cases associated with community-based residential care, with no discharge from hospital within the previous 12 weeks. Patient demographics and C. difficile PCR r...
Source: Eurosurveillance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. PMID: 27470194 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
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