Transmission or Within-Host Dynamics Driving Pulses of Zoonotic Viruses in Reservoir –Host Populations

by Raina K. Plowright, Alison J. Peel, Daniel G. Streicker, Amy T. Gilbert, Hamish McCallum, James Wood, Michelle L. Baker, Olivier Restif Progress in combatting zoonoses that emerge from wildlife is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology of pathogens within reservoir hosts. We focus on the host–pathogen dynamics of four emerging viruses associated with bats: Hendra, Nipah, Ebola, and Marburg viruses. Spillover of ba t infections to humans and domestic animals often coincides with pulses of viral excretion within bat populations, but the mechanisms driving such pulses are unclear. Three hypotheses dominate current research on these emerging bat infections. First, pulses of viral excretion could reflect seasonal epidemic cycles driven by natural variations in population densities and contact rates among hosts. If lifelong immunity follows recovery, viruses may disappear locally but persist globally through migration; in either case, new outbreaks occur once births replenish the susceptible pool. Second, epi demic cycles could be the result of waning immunity within bats, allowing local circulation of viruses through oscillating herd immunity. Third, pulses could be generated by episodic shedding from persistently infected bats through a combination of physiological and ecological factors. The three sce narios can yield similar patterns in epidemiological surveys, but strategies to predict or manage spillover risk resulting from each scenario will be diffe...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
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Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Science World news France Trump administration Donald Trump Source Type: news
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Source: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
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Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World news UK news US news Australia news Science Infectious diseases Source Type: news
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Source: L.A. Times - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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Source: Reuters: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
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