Evolution of mycobacterium tuberculosis and implications for vaccine development.

EVOLUTION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR VACCINE DEVELOPMENT. Ethiop Med J. 2016 Apr;54(2):95-100 Authors: Gagneux S Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is a growing public health threat, particularly in the face of the global epidemics of multidrug resistance. Given the limited efficacy of the current TB vaccine and the recent clinical failure of the most advanced new TB vaccine candidate, novel concepts for vaccine design should be explored. Most T cell antigens in the human-adapted Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are evolutionarily conserved and under strong purifying selection, indicating that host immune responses targeting these antigens might not be protective. By contrast, a few highly variable T cell epitopes have recently been discovered, which could serve as alternative vaccine antigens. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the human-adapted MTBC has been co-evolving with the human host for a long time. Hence, studying the interaction between bacterial and human genetic diversity might help identify additional targets that could be exploited for TB vaccine development. PMID: 27476231 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Ethiopian Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: Ethiop Med J Source Type: research

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The global control of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge due to the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis, especially multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), which is resistant to rifampin and isoniazid (Zhao et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2014b). According to recent WHO global estimates, there were 480,000 MDR-TB cases in 2017 (WHO,2018). Almost half of the global MDR-TB cases occurred in China and India (WHO,2018). Due to resistance to both of the most effective antituberculosis drugs, the treatment of MDR-TB requires the use of the less effective and more toxic second-line drugs; approximately half of MDR-TB ...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
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Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health Poverty & SDGs Source Type: news
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Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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Source: Topics in HIV Medicine - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Afr J Lab Med Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Mycobacteriology and Aerobic Actinomycetes Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
n Sasiain M Abstract The fitness of a pathogen results from the interaction of multiple factors favoring either epidemiological success or failure. Herein, we studied the performance of the M strain, a highly successful multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype, and its non-prosperous variant, the 410 strain, in activated human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both strains showed comparable ability to induce necrotic cell death and to survive in apoptotic macrophages. Of the various macrophage activation conditions tested, none led to an enhanced control of the outbreak strain. The combination of 1,25(O...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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