Abnormal Peri-Organ or Intra-organ Fat (APIFat) Deposition: An Underestimated Predictor of Vascular Risk?

Abnormal Peri-Organ or Intra-organ Fat (APIFat) Deposition: An Underestimated Predictor of Vascular Risk? Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2016 Jul 22; Authors: Katsiki N, Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP Abstract Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fatmay play a beneficialrole in cardiometabolic disordersBrown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat. Apart from these fat depots, there are other adipose tissues that are either systemically (i.e. in the liver, muscle or neck) or mainly locally acting (i.e. pericardial/epicardial, perivascular and perirenal). These fat depots can affect the nearby anatomic organs via lipid accumulation and cytokine secretion. In the present narrative review, the associations of excessiveperi-organ adipose tissue, namely intrahepatic, epicardial/pericardial, perivascular, intramuscular, peripancreatic and perirenal fat, with cardiometabolic and CVD risk factors are discussed. The effects of drugs that target vascular risk and/or different fat depots are also considered. PMID: 27456108 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Koch TR, Shope TR Abstract Obesity is a major factor in the worldwide rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obesity "epidemic" will require novel, effective interventions to permit both the prevention and treatment of diabetes caused by obesity. Laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy is a newer bariatric surgical procedure with a lower risk of complications (compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery). Based in part on restriction of daily caloric intake, sleeve gastrectomy has a major role in inducing significant weight loss and weight loss is maintained for at least 10&nbs...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
AbstractObesity and insulin resistance are at the centre of most cases of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease approximately 2 ‐fold and type 2 diabetes mellitus approximately 5‐fold. Aside from lifestyle intervention and drug therapy, bariatric surgery (BS) is considered a definitive treatment for this disease.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: JDI UPDATES Source Type: research
Authors: Grgurevic I, Podrug K, Mikolasevic I, Kukla M, Madir A, Tsochatzis EA Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, associated with epidemics of overweight and resulting metabolic syndrome (MetS). Around 20-30% of patients with NAFLD develop progressive liver fibrosis, which is the most important predictor of liver-related and overall morbidity and mortality. In contrast to classical understanding, no significant association has been demonstrated between the inflammatory component of NAFLD, i.e., nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the advers...
Source: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Obesity, a remarkably increased healthcare problem, accompanies with morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alteration is thought to be effective on the background of obesity, even concomitant with DM and hypertension. We aimed to evaluate the negative feedback mechanism of the HPA axis via overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and the association of post-1mg DST cortisol level with DM and hypertension presence in obesity.
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
e;zquiz Aguirre S, Sánchez Landa E Abstract INTRODUCTION: whether hypovitaminosis D is an overarching cause of increased mortality or a prognostic marker of poor health has not been well elucidated. OBJECTIVES: we sought to determine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)-D3] levels with the clinical biochemical parameters and mortality risk in chronic diseases. METHODS: we reviewed the clinical charts and collected the clinical biochemical parameters of patients diagnosed with chronic conditions who had at least one 25-(OH)-D3 determination, with or without calcium and vitamin D su...
Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria - Category: Nutrition Authors: Tags: Nutr Hosp Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
ConclusionBariatric surgery leads to substantial weight loss and amelioration of type 2 diabetes. An ABCD score of>  6 predicts diabetes remission following bariatric surgery, and is recommended as an aid for patient selection and counseling.
Source: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionIFG represented a higher risk and PAF than MetS for T2DM incidence in middle ‐aged Japanese. Coexistence of MetS and IFG indicated the highest risk and PAF for T2DM incidence. The current Japanese MetS screening program should be reconsidered to follow up non‐MetS individuals with IFG.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review summarizes our current knowledge on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and glucose metabolism alterations in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the most common syndromic cause of obesity, and serves as a guide for future research and current best practice.Recent FindingsDiabetes occurs in 10 –25% of PWS patients, usually in adulthood. Severe obesity is a significant risk factor for developing of T2DM in PWS. Paradoxically, despite severe obesity, a relative hypoinsulinemia, without the expected insulin resistance, is frequently observed in PWS. The majority of PWS subjects with T2DM a re a...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
More News: Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Diabetes | Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 2 | Drugs & Pharmacology | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Heart | Liver | Obesity | Urology & Nephrology