Influenza activity in Kenya, 2007 –2013: timing, association with climatic factors, and implications for vaccination campaigns

BackgroundInformation on the timing of influenza circulation remains scarce in Tropical regions of Africa. ObjectivesWe assessed the relationship between influenza activity and several meteorological factors (temperature, specific humidity, precipitation) and characterized the timing of influenza circulation and its implications to vaccination strategies in Kenya. MethodsWe analyzed virologically confirmed influenza data for outpatient influenza‐like illness (ILI), hospitalized for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), and cases of severe pneumonia over the period 2007–2013. Using logistic and negative binomial regression methods, we assessed the independent association between climatic variables (lagged up to 4 weeks) and influenza activity. ResultsThere were multiple influenza epidemics occurring each year and lasting a median duration of 2–4 months. On average, there were two epidemics occurring each year in most of the regions in Kenya, with the first epidemic occurring between the months of February and March and the second one between July and November. Specific humidity was independently and negatively associated with influenza activity. Combinations of low temperature (
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

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In conclusion, the agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb induces potent CD8 T-cell-dependent antitumour immunity and an inflammatory response of lesser magnitude than does LPS. The agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb has potential as an adjuvant for use in vaccines against cancer. PMID: 31515801 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
We describe a novel type of high-affinity monoclonal antibody, that: a) targets specific trans-membrane receptor structures of harmful or redundant cells; b) is equipped with lipophilic and/or hydrophobic fragments that prevent physiological water flow inside ion channels. Therefore, we achieve an artificial dewetting transition inside receptor cavities, that causes discontinuity within transmembrane ionic flows, channel blockage, and subsequent damage of morbid cells. As an example, we describe dewetting monoclonal antibodies that target the M2 channel of the Influenza A virus: they might prevent water from entering pores...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Philip R. Baldwin, Dmitry LyumkisAbstractVirtually all single-particle cryo-EM experiments currently suffer from specimen adherence to the air-water interface, leading to a non-uniform distribution in the set of projection views. Whereas it is well accepted that uniform projection distributions can lead to high-resolution reconstructions, non-uniform (anisotropic) distributions can negatively affect map quality, elongate structural features, and in some cases, prohibit interpretation altogether. Although some ...
Source: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Alexandra Douglas-Bardsley, Catpagavalli Asokanathan, Sharon Tierney, Jason Hockley, Kevin MarkeyAbstractPertussis toxin (PT) in its detoxified form is one of the major protective antigens in vaccines against Bordetella pertussis (whooping cough). Reference preparations of native PT are required for the quality control of pertussis vaccines. Stocks of the first WHO International Standard (IS) for PT (JNIH-5) were low and a replacement was required. One candidate material was donated by a vaccine manufacturer to NIBSC. It was formulated, lyoph...
Source: Biologicals - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Gene Expression Patterns - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
A woman threw a bloody menstrual cup at lawmakers and shouted, "That's for the dead babies."
Source: Washington Post: To Your Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
Abstract It remains uncertain why most infectious disease mortalities disappeared before modern medical interventions. Historical epidemiology using prospectively collected U.S. Army data from the Civil War (1860-1861), Spanish-American War (1898-1899), and First World War (1917-1918) suggests that epidemiological isolation was a major mortality risk factor for soldiers. Morbidity and mortality due to common infections decreased progressively from 1860 to 1918, except for influenza during the 1918 pandemic. Adult measles or mumps infections are indicative of isolated rural populations and correlated with disease m...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
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Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
BackgroundInformation on the timing of influenza circulation remains scarce in Tropical regions of Africa. ObjectivesWe assessed the relationship between influenza activity and several meteorological factors (temperature, specific humidity, precipitation) and characterized the timing of influenza circulation and its implications to vaccination strategies in Kenya. MethodsWe analyzed virologically confirmed influenza data for outpatient influenza‐like illness (ILI), hospitalized for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), and cases of severe pneumonia over the period 2007–2013. Using logistic and negative binomi...
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract BackgroundInformation on the timing of influenza circulation remains scarce in Tropical regions of Africa. ObjectivesWe assessed the relationship between influenza activity and several meteorological factors (temperature, specific humidity, precipitation), and characterized the timing of influenza circulation, and its implications to vaccination strategies in Kenya. MethodsWe analyzed virologically‐confirmed influenza data for outpatient influenza‐like illness (ILI), hospitalized for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI), and cases of severe pneumonia over the period 2007‐2013. Using logistic and negati...
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
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