Si –Ge–Sn alloys: From growth to applications
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Progress in Crystal Growth and Characterization of Materials, Volume 62, Issue 1 Author(s): S. Wirths, D. Buca, S. Mantl In this review article, we address key material parameters as well as the fabrication and application of crystalline GeSn binary and SiGeSn ternary alloys. Here, the transition from an indirect to a fundamental direct bandgap material will be discussed. The main emphasis, however, is put on the Si–Ge–Sn epitaxy. The low solid solubility of α-Sn in Ge and Si of below 1 at.% along with the large lattice mismatch between α-Sn (6.489 Å) and Ge (5.646 Å) or Si (5.431 Å) of about 15% and 20%, respectively, requires non-equilibrium growth processes. The most commonly used approaches, i.e. molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), will be reviewed in terms of crucial process parameters, structural as well as optical quality and employed precursor combinations including Germanium hydrides, Silicon hydrides and a variety of Sn compounds like SnD4, SnCl4 or C6H5SnD3. Special attention is devoted to the growth temperature window and growth rates being the most important growth parameters concerning the substitutional incorporation of Sn atoms into the Ge diamond lattice. Furthermore, the mainly CVD-driven epitaxy of high quality SiGeSn ternary alloys, allowing the decoupling of band engineering and lattice constant, is presented. Since achievi...
This report continues the development of ALIs as a clinical tool in wildlife while systematically testing one possible method for determining an optimal ALI for a particular species. PMID: 32228119 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Park J, Kim J, Chen Y, Song HC, Chen Y, Zheng M, Surh YJ, Kim UH, Park JW, Joe Y, Chung HT Abstract Oxidative stress is recognised as a key factor that can lead to cellular senescence and aging. Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which exerts cytoprotective effects in aging-related diseases, whereas the effect of CO on cellular senescence and aging has not been elucidated. In the current study, we clearly demonstrated that CO delays the process of cellular senescence and aging through regulation of miR-34a and Sirt1 expression. CO reduced H2O2-induced premature senescence in human ...
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