The distribution of muscarinic M1 receptors in the human hippocampus

Publication date: Available online 18 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Elizabeth Scarr, Myoung Suk Seo, Timothy Douglas Aumann, Gursharan Chana, Ian Paul Everall, Brian Dean The muscarinic M1 receptor plays a significant role in cognition, probably by modulating information processing in key regions such as the hippocampus. To understand how the muscarinic M1 receptor achieves these functions in the hippocampus, it is critical to know the distribution of the receptor within this complex brain region. To date, there are limited data on the distribution of muscarinic M1 receptors in the human hippocampus which may also be confounded because some anti-muscarinic receptor antibodies have been shown to lack specificity. Initially, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we showed the anti-muscarinic M1 receptor antibody to be used in our study bound to a single 62kDa protein that was absent in mice lacking the muscarinic M1 receptor gene. Then, using immunohistochemistry, we determined the distribution of muscarinic M1 receptors in human hippocampus from 10 subjects with no discernible history of a neurological or psychiatric disorder. Our data shows the muscarinic M1 receptor to be predominantly on pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Muscarinic M1 receptor positive cells were most apparent in the deep polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus, the pyramidal cell layer of cornu ammonis region 3, the cellular layers of the subiculum, layer ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 27 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Yunus Akkoc, Devrim GozuacikAbstractAutophagy is a cellular stress response mechanism activation of which leads to degradation of cellular components, including proteins as well as damaged organelles in lysosomes. Defects in autophagy mechanisms were associated with several pathologies (e.g. cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and rare genetic diseases). Therefore, autophagy regulation is under strict control. Transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms that control autophagy in cells and ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
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Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, produces rapid and sustained antidepressant actions in depressed patients, addressing a major unmet need for the treatment of mood disorders. Ketamine produces a rapid increase in extracellular glutamate and synaptic formation in the prefrontal cortex, but the initial cellular trigger that initiates this increase and ketamine’s behavioral actions has not been identified. To address this question, we used a combination of viral shRNA and conditional mutation to produce cell-specific knockdown or deletion of a key NMDAR subunit, GluN2B, impli...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Hematological malignancies have long been at the forefront of the development of novel immune-based treatment strategies. The earliest successful efforts originated from the extensive body of work in the field of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These efforts laid the foundation for the recent exciting era of cancer immunotherapy, which includes immune checkpoint blockade, personal neoantigen vaccines, and adoptive T cell transfer. At the heart of the specificity of these novel strategies is the recognition of target antigens presented by malignant cells to T cells. Here, we review the advances in system...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Immune response to therapeutic enzymes poses a detriment to patient safety and treatment outcome. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is a standard therapeutic option for some types of mucopolysaccharidoses, including Morquio A syndrome caused by N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) deficiency. Current protocols tolerize patients using cytotoxic immunosuppressives, which can cause adverse effects. Here we show development of tolerance in Morquio A mice via oral delivery of peptide or GALNS for 10 days prior to ERT. Our results show that using an immunodominant peptide (I10) or the complete GALNS enzyme to orally ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Cortical hyperexcitability and mislocalization of the RNA-binding protein TDP43 are highly conserved features in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nevertheless, the relationship between these phenomena remains poorly defined. Here, we showed that hyperexcitability recapitulates TDP43 pathology by upregulating shortened TDP43 (sTDP43) splice isoforms. These truncated isoforms accumulated in the cytoplasm and formed insoluble inclusions that sequestered full-length TDP43 via preserved N-terminal interactions. Consistent with these findings, sTDP43 overexpression was toxic to mammalian neurons, suggesting neurodegeneration...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
The human lipidome comprises over tens of thousands of distinct lipid species in addition to total cholesterol and the other conventional lipid traits that are routinely measurable in the peripheral circulation. Of the lipid species considered to exhibit bioactive functions, sphingolipids are a class of molecules that have shown relevance to human disease risk and cardiovascular outcomes in particular. In this issue of the JCI, Poss et al. conducted targeted lipidomics in a case-control study involving over 600 individuals and found a sphingolipid profile that predicted coronary artery disease status. In the context of eme...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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