Induction of mice adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into functional motor neuron-like cells

Publication date: Available online 11 July 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Rafal H. Abdullah, Nahi Y. Yaseen, Shahlaa M Salih, Ahmad Adnan Al-Juboory, Ayman Hassan, Ahmed Majeed Al-Shammari The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into acetylcholine secreted motor neuron-like cells, followed by elongation of the cell axon, is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury and motor neuron cell dysfunction in mammals. Differentiation is induced through a pre-induction step using Beta- mercaptoethanol (BME) followed by four days of induction with retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog. This process results in a very efficient differentiation of BM-MSCs into motor neuron-like cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that these treated cells had specific motor neural markers: microtubule associated protein-2 and acetylcholine transferase. The ability of these cells to function as motor neuron cells was assessed by measuring acetylcholine levels in a culture media during differentiation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the differentiated cells were functional. Motor neuron axon elongation was then induced by adding different concentrations of a nerve growth factor (NGF) to the differentiation media. Using a collagen matrix to mimic the natural condition of neural cells in a three-dimensional model showed that the MSCs were successfully differentiated into motor neuron-like cells. This process can efficiently differentiate MSCs ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Abstract Sacral reflexes are important to allow the SCI practitioner to gain information about the state of the sacral spinal cord segments. The presence of the bulbocavernosus and/or the anal wink reflex indicate an intact spinal reflex arc and reflex conal autonomic function (as part of the upper motor neuron syndrome); their absence defines a lower motor neuron syndrome. The assessment of sacral reflexes helps predict the type of bladder, bowel and sexual functions and the related therapeutic interventions. We suggest adding the sacral component of the International Standards for the Assessment of Autonomic Fun...
Source: Anal Sci - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Spinal Cord Ser Cases Source Type: research
Abstract The examination of sacral reflexes provides an important method to differentiate an upper motor neuron vs lower motor neuron spinal cord injury (SCI). Two common sacral mediated reflexes used as part of the neurological assessment include the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) and anal reflex. As the clinical information from these tests are similar, we suggest that the anal reflex provides a better first option as a non-invasive clinical assessment of sacral reflex status in clinical practice in SCI as the testing for the anal reflex is less intrusive and already being performed as part of the International St...
Source: Anal Sci - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Spinal Cord Ser Cases Source Type: research
ERRγ is downregulated in injured motor neuron subpopulations following brachial plexus root avulsion. Exp Ther Med. 2020 Jan;19(1):205-213 Authors: Yu G, Zilundu PLM, Liu L, Zhong K, Tang Y, Ling Z, Zhou LH Abstract Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a member of a small group of orphan nuclear receptor transcription factors that have been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including placental development, regulation of metabolic genes or disease. The pattern of expression of ERRγ, its role in neuronal injury and its co-localization with other tran...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Nerve transfer surgery is used to restore upper extremity function following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) with substantial variation in outcomes. The injury pattern in SCI is complex and can include isolated upper motor neuron (UMN) and combined UMN/lower motor neuron (LMN) dysfunction. The purpose of the study was to determine the most effective diagnostic technique for determining suitable candidates for nerve transfer surgery in SCI.
Source: The Journal of Hand Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Editor's Choice Source Type: research
This study is the first report of evidence demonstrating that a second‐degree bu rn injury significantly affects motor neuron structure within the spinal cord. Furthermore, our results support the opportunity to study dendritic spine dysgenesis as a novel avenue to clarify the complexities of neurological disease following traumatic injury.
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence to promote any one intervention for the management of UMN-NB. The promotion of DRS, and education as to the proper technique for DRS should remain an emphasis of education of home management of UMN-NB in persons with SCI. Future research should focus on the use of standardized, validated tools to evaluate management techniques for UMN-NB. PMID: 31809250 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research
Background: Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used in different patient cohorts with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of HMV in specific subgroups. There are sparse data comparing outcomes in different disease groups on HMV.Methods: All-cause mortality of patients on HMV was documented between 2008 and 2018 in a large tertiary referral centre. Time on HMV until death was compared between patients with neuromuscular disease/chest wall disease (NMD/CWD), obstructive airway disease (OAD), obesity-related respiratory failure (ORRF), overlap syndrome of OAD and OSA (OVERLAP...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Noninvasive ventilatory support Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: New neuronal pathways created by nerve transfer can restore bladder sensation and motor function in lower motor neuron-lesioned canines even 12 months after decentralization. PMID: 31703192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery.Spine - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Spine Source Type: research
Effects of D‑Ala2, D‑Leu5‑Enkephalin pre‑ and post‑conditioning in a rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion injury. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Oct 07;: Authors: Fu D, Liu H, Liu H, Yao J Abstract It has recently been revealed that during the aorta‑clamped period, D‑Ala2, D‑Leu5‑Enkephalin (DADLE) infusion can protect the spinal cord against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the protective effects of DADLE administration prior to ischemia or at the time of early reperfusion have not yet been investigated. Drug pre‑ or post‑conditioning can serve as a more valuabl...
Source: Molecular Medicine Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Mol Med Rep Source Type: research
Abstract The output from a motor nucleus is determined by the synaptic input to the motor neurons and their intrinsic properties. Here, we explore whether the source of synaptic inputs to the motor neurons (cats) and the age or post-stroke conditions (humans) may change the recruitment gain of the motor neuron pool. In cats, the size of Ia EPSPs in triceps surae motor neurons (input) and monosynaptic reflexes (MSRs; output) was recorded in the soleus and medial gastrocnemius motor nerves following graded stimulation of dorsal roots. The MSR was plotted against the EPSP thereby obtaining a measure of the recruitmen...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
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