Cloning for Medicine: the Miracle that Wasn’t

By Editor, Sunday Times, Sri LankaJul 5 2016 (The Sunday Times - Sri Lanka)PARIS, AFP – When Dolly the cloned sheep was born 20 years ago on July 5, many hailed mankind’s new-found mastery over DNA as a harbinger of medical miracles such as lab-grown transplant organs. Others trembled at the portent of a “Brave New World” of identical humans farmed for spare parts or as cannon fodder.As it turns out, neither came to pass.Human cloning — complicated, risky and ethically contentious — has largely been replaced as the holy grail of regenerative medicine by other technologies, say experts.“It has not lived (up) to the hype,” said Rosario Isasi of the University of Miami’s Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy.“It was like a eureka moment: that we will finally be able to understand more (about) the mechanisms of disease, be able to maybe use it as a treatment for infertility,” she told AFP. “But that has not happened.” Arguably the world’s most famous sheep, Dolly was the first mammal cloned using a technique called somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).It involves removing the DNA-containing nucleus of a cell other than an egg or sperm — a skin cell, for example — and implanting it into an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has been removed.In Dolly’s case, the gene-encoding cell was taken from a mammary gland, which saw the ewe named for buxom country singer Dolly Parton...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Global Headlines Health Source Type: news

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Gui-Jiang Wei1,2, Ming-Qing Yuan1, Li-He Jiang1, Yu-Lan Lu3, Chun-Hong Liu3, Hong-Cheng Luo3, Hua-Tuo Huang3, Zong-Quan Qi1* and Ye-Sheng Wei1,2* 1Department of Cell Biology, Medical College of Guangxi University, Nanning, China 2Department of Medical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, China 3Department of Medical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, China miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs modulating gene expression, and variants in miRNA genes are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). However, the effect of mi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The periconceptional environment and lifestyle factors modify sperm epigenome. This alteration might be maintained in the zygote and throughout development, thereby leading to the inheritance of newly acquired pathologies. The role of sperm miRNA, not only as innovative markers of fertility issues but also as vectors involved in the inheritance of paternal diseases, appears to be crucial. Overweight and obesity seem to alter sperm miRNA profile, thereby leading to transmission of different miRNA profiles in zygote, with consequences on embryo development. In long term, metabolic disorders have been described in...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
In this study, a link between mitochondrial changes and infant temperament has also been suggested. Maternal psychosocial stress and lifetime trauma have been associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in the placenta (115, 116).IndividualityChronic stress links changes in the epigenetic landscape with health conditions (117). Different cell types are characterized by distinct patterns of gene expression due to developmental, environmental, physiological, and pathological reasons (117). Epigenetic mechanisms affect gene function in a dynamic way as a result of different environmental exposures during fetal dev...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion We have identified a rich and complex sperm transcriptome with known and novel coding RNAs, lncRNAs and sncRNAs that resembles the human, mouse and cattle counterparts. Their roles are mainly related to the regulation of spermatogenesis, fertility and early embryo development. These spermatozoal transcripts are fragmented, likely in a selective manner, consistently affecting some genes more than others across samples. This suggests that their fragmentation is not stochastic and follows an unknown deterministic pattern with potential functional implications. Similarly, the variability of the transcript abundance...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Researchers at the Institute of Life in Athens, Greece announced that a healthy baby boy was born on Tuesday morning to a 32-year-old woman who had experienced several failed cycles of IVF. The six-pound boy, who the doctors say in a statement is healthy, was born using a technique called maternal spindle transfer. In the procedure, the grouped-together DNA from a mother’s egg was removed and placed inside a donor egg from another woman, which had been emptied of its DNA. The donor’s egg with the mother’s genes was then fertilized and developed into an embryo that was transferred for pregnancy. The techn...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Genetics Reproductive Health Source Type: news
When Noah Shulman was born a few days after Christmas 2016, his parents Kristelle and Evan had no reason to worry about him. The pregnancy went smoothly, and so did the birth. But within a few days of taking his first breath, Noah began to struggle. He wasn’t feeding, so he started losing weight. He was also lethargic. Several pediatricians reassured the Shulmans that they were probably just overly sensitive to Noah’s symptoms because Kristelle is a nurse and Evan is a physician assistant–a case of first-time-parent-white-coat syndrome. “They kind of dismissed us as neurotic parents,” says Eva...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized fertility Research Source Type: news
Conclusion: Heat stimulation by M-RF treatment induced upregulation of UCP1 and FGF21 expression in serum and/or WATs, which was correlated with reduced total body and WAT weight gain in DIO mice. PMID: 30275865 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Kristensen SG, Humaidan P, Coetzee K Abstract Mitochondria, known as the energy factories in all cells, are key regulators of multiple vital cellular processes and affect all aspects of mammalian reproduction, being essential for oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryonic development. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently implicated in disease as well as age-related infertility. Since mitochondria are inherited exclusively from the mother, the female gamete is central to reproductive outcome and therapeutic interventions, such as mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT), and development of new dia...
Source: Panminerva Medica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Panminerva Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018 Source:Reproductive BioMedicine Online Author(s): Gustavo Nardini Cecchino, Emre Seli, Eduardo Leme Alves da Motta, Juan Antonio García Velasco Mitochondria have been implicated as key factors regulating female reproductive processes. Notable progress has been made in determining the role of mitochondria with respect to oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. In addition, mitochondrial function and dysfunction has been the subject of various studies in ovarian ageing and metabolic stress models. However, the overall mitochondrial impact on femal...
Source: Reproductive BioMedicine Online - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
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