Cloning for Medicine: the Miracle that Wasn’t

By Editor, Sunday Times, Sri LankaJul 5 2016 (The Sunday Times - Sri Lanka)PARIS, AFP – When Dolly the cloned sheep was born 20 years ago on July 5, many hailed mankind’s new-found mastery over DNA as a harbinger of medical miracles such as lab-grown transplant organs. Others trembled at the portent of a “Brave New World” of identical humans farmed for spare parts or as cannon fodder.As it turns out, neither came to pass.Human cloning — complicated, risky and ethically contentious — has largely been replaced as the holy grail of regenerative medicine by other technologies, say experts.“It has not lived (up) to the hype,” said Rosario Isasi of the University of Miami’s Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy.“It was like a eureka moment: that we will finally be able to understand more (about) the mechanisms of disease, be able to maybe use it as a treatment for infertility,” she told AFP. “But that has not happened.” Arguably the world’s most famous sheep, Dolly was the first mammal cloned using a technique called somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).It involves removing the DNA-containing nucleus of a cell other than an egg or sperm — a skin cell, for example — and implanting it into an unfertilised egg from which the nucleus has been removed.In Dolly’s case, the gene-encoding cell was taken from a mammary gland, which saw the ewe named for buxom country singer Dolly Parton...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: Global & Universal Authors: Tags: Development & Aid Global Headlines Health Source Type: news

Related Links:

Authors: Kristensen SG, Humaidan P, Coetzee K Abstract Mitochondria, known as the energy factories in all cells, are key regulators of multiple vital cellular processes and affect all aspects of mammalian reproduction, being essential for oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryonic development. Mitochondrial dysfunction is consequently implicated in disease as well as age-related infertility. Since mitochondria are inherited exclusively from the mother, the female gamete is central to reproductive outcome and therapeutic interventions, such as mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT), and development of new dia...
Source: Panminerva Medica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Panminerva Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018 Source:Reproductive BioMedicine Online Author(s): Gustavo Nardini Cecchino, Emre Seli, Eduardo Leme Alves da Motta, Juan Antonio García Velasco Mitochondria have been implicated as key factors regulating female reproductive processes. Notable progress has been made in determining the role of mitochondria with respect to oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. In addition, mitochondrial function and dysfunction has been the subject of various studies in ovarian ageing and metabolic stress models. However, the overall mitochondrial impact on femal...
Source: Reproductive BioMedicine Online - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract Mitochondria play a fundamental role during development of the female germline. They are fragmented, round and small. Despite these characteristics suggesting that they are inactive, there is accumulating evidence that mitochondrial dysfunctions are a major cause of infertility and generation of aneuploidies in humans. In addition, mitochondria and their own genomes (mitochondrial DNA - mtDNA) may become damaged with time, which might be one reason why aging leads to infertility. As a result, mitochondria have been proposed as an important target for evaluating oocyte and embryo quality, and developing tr...
Source: Cell Biology International - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Biol Int Source Type: research
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
This is a most interesting technology demonstration for anyone interested in the various aspects of mitochondrial contributions to aging: transferring mitochondria from fat-derived cells into germline cells in an older mouse can reverse some of the consequences of aging in the germline, specifically loss of fertility in females. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, primarily responsible for generating chemical energy store molecules, though they have many other roles in fundamental cellular activities as well. There are a couple of different aspects to mitochondrial dysfunction in aging, and the research here is ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Funding Opportunity PA-18-093 from the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage applications from the scientific community to support outstanding research in the area of oocyte mitochondrial function in relation to fertility, aging, and mitochondrial disease transmission to offspring. The overarching goal is to gain fundamental insight into the role of mitochondria and long-term consequences of their dysfunction in the oocyte, and to develop therapeutic or alternative approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction for improving oocyte quality and compete...
Source: NIH Funding Opportunities (Notices, PA, RFA) - Category: Research Source Type: funding
Conclusions: Concentrations of MnBP, MBzP and MEHP similar to those found in the urine of pregnant women consistently altered hCG and PPARγ expression in primary placental cells. These findings provide evidence for the molecular basis by which phthalates may alter placental function, and they provide a preliminary mechanistic hypothesis for opposite responses by sex. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1539 Received: 23 December 2016 Revised: 6 September 2017 Accepted: 18 September 2017 Published: 31 October 2017 Address correspondence to J.J. Adibi, 130 Desoto Street, Parran Hall 5132, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA. Telephone...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Impaired respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial protein import, alterations of the inner mitochondrial membrane composition and defects of mitochondrial dynamics are characteristics of mitochondrial disease. Our recently published proteomic data on comparative proteomic analysis of sperm proteins identified 22 differentially expressed proteins (DEP) of mitochondrial origin. Proteins involved in mitochondrial organization (LETM1, EFHC1 and MIC60), import receptor TOM22, 3 crucial subunits of electron transport chain (ETC) and the core enzymes of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were under-expressed in ...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Tags: Poster session Source Type: research
Abstract Mutations of mtDNA cause mitochondrial diseases and are implicated in age-associated diseases and aging. Pathogenic mtDNA mutations are often present in a fraction of all mtDNA copies, and it has been widely debated whether the proportion of mutant genomes or the absolute number of wild-type molecules determines if oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) will be impaired. Here, we have studied the male infertility phenotype of mtDNA mutator mice and demonstrate that decreasing mtDNA copy number worsens mitochondrial aberrations of spermatocytes and spermatids in testes, whereas an increase in mtDNA copy number...
Source: Cell Metabolism - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Cell Metab Source Type: research
Apigenin is a plant‐derived flavonoid having antiproliferative, anti‐inflammatory, and anti‐angiogenic properties in chronic and metabolic diseases, and cancers. However, the functional role of apigenin remains to be identified in human endometriosis that is a benign inflammatory disease causing infertility, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic abdominal or pelvic pain. In the present study, we determined the effects of apigenin on two well‐established human endometriosis cell lines (VK2/E6E7 and End1/E6E7). Apigenin reduced proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the both endometriosis cell ...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
More News: Genetics | Health | Infertility | International Medicine & Public Health | Liver | Liver Transplant | Medical Ethics | Middle East Health | Mitochondrial Disease | Oxford University | Reproduction Medicine | Skin | Sri Lanka Health | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Transplant Surgery | Transplants | Urology & Nephrology