Neuronal expression of c-Fos after epicortical and intracortical electric stimulation of the primary visual cortex

Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Belal Neyazi, Kerstin Schwabe, Mesbah Alam, Joachim K. Krauss, Makoto Nakamura Electrical stimulation of the primary visual cortex (V1) is an experimental approach for visual prostheses. We here compared the response to intracortical and epicortical stimulation of the primary visual cortex by using c-Fos immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. The primary visual cortex of male Sprague Dawley rats was unilaterally stimulated for four hours using bipolar electrodes placed either intracortically in layer IV (n=26) or epicortically (n=20). Four different current intensities with a constant pulse width of 200μs and a constant frequency of 10Hz were used, for intracortical stimulation with an intensity of 0μA (sham-stimulation), 10μA, 20μA and 40μA, and for epicortical stimulation 0μA, 400μA, 600μA and 800μA. Subsequently all animals underwent c-Fos immunostaining and c-Fos expression was assessed in layer I–VI of the primary visual cortex within 200μm and 400μm distance to the stimulation site. C-Fos expression was higher after intracortical stimulation compared to epicortical stimulation, even though ten times lower current intensities were applied. Furthermore intracortical stimulation resulted in more focal neuronal activation than epicortical stimulation. C-Fos expression was highest after intracortical stimulation with ...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Authors: Ali Z, Tegin C, El-Mallakh RS Abstract Introduction: Lurasidone has been approved in the United States as a monotherapy and adjunct for acute bipolar I depression, as well as an antipsychotic for patients with schizophrenia.Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of lurasidone as well and the major randomized clinical trials. The authors also provide their expert opinion.Expert opinion: Lurasidone has not been studied in patients with mania or bipolar psychosis. It has been studied, both as a monotherapy and adjunctive treatment to lithium or valproate, in acute ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2020Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Ari B. Cuperfain, James L. Kennedy, Vanessa F. GoncalvesAbstractCognitive impairment is highly prevalent in the progression of both diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder. The relationship between insulin resistance in diabetes and the risk of developing major neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease has been well described. Insulin resistance and the associated metabolic deficiencies lead to biochemical alteration which hasten neurodegeneration and subsequent cognitive impairment. For bipolar disor...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Raunak Sinha, Tabrez J. Siddiqui, Nirmala Padmanabhan, Julie Wallin, Chi Zhang, Benyamin Karimi, Fred Rieke, Ann Marie Craig, Rachel O. Wong, Mrinalini HoonSummaryLRRTM4 is a transsynaptic adhesion protein regulating glutamatergic synapse assembly on dendrites of central neurons. In the mouse retina, we find that LRRTM4 is enriched at GABAergic synapses on axon terminals of rod bipolar cells (RBCs). Knockout of LRRTM4 reduces RBC axonal GABAA and GABAC receptor clustering and disrupts presynaptic inhibition onto RBC terminals. LRRTM4 removal also pe...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Family therapy focused on building communication and problem-solving skills may benefit youth at high risk of bipolar disorder, according to areport inJAMA Psychiatry. Specifically, the study found that youth with mood symptoms and a family history of bipolar disorder who participated in a four-month program with their parents (and, when possible, siblings) had longer periods between symptoms of depression, mania, hypomania, or mixed episodes (mood episodes) than those who participated in a program with less intensive family involvement.Previous studies show that youth at highest risk of progressing to bipolar disorder ear...
Source: Psychiatr News - Category: Psychiatry Tags: bipolar disorder communication David J. Miklowitz depression family therapy family-focused therapy JAMA Psychiatry manic episodes mood episodes mood symptoms problem solving youth Source Type: research
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide of all psychiatric conditions and is approximately 20-30 times that of the general population. The purpose of this review is to discuss findings relevant to bipolar disorder and suicide. R...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Research Methods, Surveillance and Codes, Models Source Type: news
This study aimed to investigate the risk of self-harm following diagnosis of different psychiatric disorders in an Asian population, through a review of inpatient records retrieved from the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System (CDARS).MethodsFor this nested case-control study, the inpatient data of people admitted for any reason to Hong Kong public hospitals, between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2010, were extracted from CDARS. Cases were people aged 10 years or older who had been admitted to inpatient care with a first-listed record of psychiatric disorder during the study period. The seven psychiatric disord...
Source: The Lancet Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
With each recurrence the prognosis of bipolar disorder (BD) worsens, indicating the need to identify the factors associated with increased recurrence risk. The course of BD is heterogenous and although risk factors for recurrence for the group as a whole have been reported in the literature, identification of risk factors for a specific individual are crucial for developing personalized treatments.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: New Research Source Type: research
The incidence rate of hip fractures is increasing with increasing average life span and social activities in elderly patients. In this patient population, the main goal after a hip fracture is to try to return to performing daily activities at pre-fracture levels as soon as possible to prevent complications [1].
Source: Injury - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Barton BB, Segger F, Fischer K, Obermeier M, Musil R Abstract Introduction: Antipsychotic-induced weight-gain (AIWG) is a very important, yet often neglected side-effect in the treatment with first and second generation antipsychotics. AIWG can increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Meta-analyses mostly concentrate on AIWG in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, even though antipsychotics are prescribed off-label across many other diagnostic groups (e.g. anxiety disorders, depression, autistic disorder).Areas covered: Pub Med and Web of Science were systemat...
Source: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Drug Saf Source Type: research
Condition:   Obturator Jerk in TURBT Intervention:   Device: TURBT Sponsor:   Tribhuvan University, Nepal Completed
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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