Demonstration of the functional impact of vasopressin signalling in thick ascending limb by a targeted transgenic rat approach.

Demonstration of the functional impact of vasopressin signalling in thick ascending limb by a targeted transgenic rat approach. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016 Jun 15;:ajprenal.00126.2016 Authors: Mutig K, Borowski T, Boldt C, Borschewski A, Paliege A, Popova E, Bader M, Bachmann S Abstract The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) regulates renal salt and water reabsorption along the distal nephron and collecting duct system. These effects are mediated by V2 receptors (V2R) and release of intracellular Gs-mediated cAMP to activate epithelial transport proteins. Inactivating mutations in the V2R gene lead to the X-linked form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) which has chiefly been related with impaired aquaporin 2-mediated water reabsorption in the collecting ducts. Previous work also suggested the AVP-V2R-mediated activation of Na+-K+-2Cl--cotransporters (NKCC2) along the thick ascending limb (TAL) in the context of urine concentration, but its individual contribution to NDI or, more generally, to overall renal function was unclear. We hypothesized that V2R-mediated effects in TAL essentially determine its reabsorptive function. To test this, we reevaluated V2R expression. Basolateral membranes of medullary and cortical TAL were clearly stained, whereas cells of the macula densa cells were unreactive. A dominant-negative, NDI-causing truncated V2R mutant (Ni3-Glu242 stop) was then introduced into the rat genome under control of the Tamm-Horsfal...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Presentation of fever, headache, diabetes insipidus, hypopituitarism and a sellar cystic mass with an enhanced rim after gadolinium contrast on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging may be suggestive of a pituitary abscess. Transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery, proper antibiotics and appropriate hormone replacement therapy when necessary are the keys of pituitary abscess treatment. PMID: 31785217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neuroendocrinology Letters - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Neuro Endocrinol Lett Source Type: research
Conclusions: GPA should be carefully considered as a potential cause of pituitary dysfunction (PD), especially when multisystem dysfunction exists. Conventional treatment with corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressive agents improves systemic symptoms, but pituitary disorders persisted in most patients. PMID: 31781205 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 November 2019Source: Molecular and Cellular EndocrinologyAuthor(s): Martin Spiess, Michael Friberg, Nicole Beuret, Cristina Prescianotto-Baschong, Jonas RutishauserAbstractThis review focuses on the cellular and molecular aspects underlying familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (DI), a rare disorder that is usually transmitted in an autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease, manifesting in infancy or early childhood and gradually progressing in severity, is caused by fully penetrant heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding prepro-vasopressin-neurophysin II, the precursor of the...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
We describe the presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with PM. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with PM at a single institution from 1996 to 2015. Eighty-five patients diagnosed with metastasis to the pituitary or sella turcica by pathology or based on a combination of neuroimaging and clinical findings were included. Univariate and multivariable Cox regressions evaluated associations between clinical factors and overall survival. RESULTS: The most frequent sites of primary malignancies resulting in PM were lung (26%) and breast (26%). Median...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Oncologist Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: MRI image together with medical history of the head trauma and its strict temporal relation with transient diabetes insipidus and the occurrence of CPHD signs, as well as the lack of extrapituitary midline defects differentiate posttraumatic pituitary stalk transection syndrome (PSTS) from genetic PSIS. In every case of severe traumatic head injury hormonal evaluation and MRI of hypothalamic-pituitary axis should be performed. PMID: 31769274 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Urinary dysfunction is common in Wolfram syndrome, mainly characterized by overactive bladder and urinary retention. The urological risk is major requiring a systelmatic follow-up of these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 31761518 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated plasma AVP concentrations during a hypertonic saline infusion test using a new AVP radioimmunoassay (RIA) which is now available in Japan. Thirteen control subjects, mostly with hypothalamo-pituitary disease but without CDI, and 13 patients with CDI were enrolled in the study. Whether or not subjects had CDI was determined based on the totality of clinical data, which included urine volumes and osmolality. Regression analysis of plasma AVP and serum Na concentrations revealed that the gradient was significantly lower in the CDI group than in the control group. The area under the receiver-operati...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
Discussion Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a clefting problem of the brain. “[HPE] the result of incomplete or absent midline division of the embryonic forebrain into distinct cerebral hemispheres (prosencephalon) between the 18th and 28th day after conception.” There are four distinct subtypes: Alobar – both hemispheres are completely fused and are not separated into the left and right hemispheres. There is agenesis of the corpus callosum, arrhinencephaly and a single ventricle with fused thalami. Facial features are almost always affected. Semilobar – the cerebral hemispheres are fused anteriorly bu...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Conclusions: Despite a paucity of published reports, diabetes insipidus after discontinuation of vasopressin infusion appears not to be a rare phenomenon, and is likely to be encountered by intensivists who regularly employ vasopressin for the treatment of vasoplegic shock. Previous reports consisted predominantly of neurosurgical patients. Our findings demonstrate the occurrence of diabetes insipidus after discontinuation of vasopressin infusion among patients with septic shock as well as vasoplegic shock after cardiothoracic intervention. The mechanism of diabetes insipidus after discontinuation of vasopressin infusion...
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Fully endoscopic pituitary surgery resulted in improvement of pituitary gland function in a substantial minority of patients. The deficiency from which patients were most likely to recover was adrenal insufficiency. Overall rates of postoperative permanent diabetes insipidus were low. This study provides multicenter benchmark neuroendocrine clinical outcome data for the endoscopic technique. PMID: 31731279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Tags: J Neurosurg Source Type: research
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