Epidemiological evidence on environmental tobacco smoke and cancers other than lung or breast

Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Peter N. Lee, Alison J. Thornton, Janette S. Hamling We reviewed 87 epidemiological studies relating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to risk of cancer other than lung or breast in never smoking adults. This updates a 2002 review which also considered breast cancer. Meta-analysis showed no significant relationship with ETS for nasopharynx cancer, head and neck cancer, various digestive cancers (stomach, rectum, colorectal, liver, pancreas), or cancers of endometrium, ovary, bladder and brain. For some cancers (including oesophagus, colon, gall bladder and lymphoma) more limited data did not suggest a relationship. An increased cervix cancer risk (RR 1.58, 95%CI 1.29–1.93, n = 17 independent estimates), reducing to 1.29 (95%CI 1.01–1.65) after restriction to five estimates adjusting for HPV infection or sexual activity suggests a causal relationship, as do associations with nasosinus cancer observed in 2002 (no new studies since), and less so kidney cancer (RR 1.33, 95%CI 1.04–1.70, n = 6). A weaker association with total cancer (RR 1.13, 95%CI 1.03–1.35, n = 19) based on heterogeneous data is inconclusive. Inadequate confounder control, recall bias, publication bias, and occasional reports of implausibly large RRs in individual studies contribute to our conclusion that the epidemiological evidence does no...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 3 June 2020Source: Journal of the American College of RadiologyAuthor(s): Ruth C. Carlos, Katy Lowry, Gelareh Sadigh
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusion. The spontaneous incidence rate of vertebral body infection among OVF patients was 0.7%; however, the occurrence of this complication led to serious events. Clinicians should pay attention to the possibility of bacillemia in elderly or immunocompromised OVF patients. Level of Evidence: 4
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: CLINICAL CASE SERIES Source Type: research
Conclusion. The proposed nomogram obtained more precision prognostic prediction for patients with initially-diagnosed primary spinal and pelvic tumors. Level of Evidence: 3
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH Source Type: research
Study Design.. A meta-analysis. Objective.. The goal of this study was to accurately evaluate the risk ratio (RR) of recurrence in chordoma patients with wide margin after removing the tumors using surgery, compared with inadequate margin (intralesional or marginal). Summary of Background Data.. As a rare malignant bone cancer, the more effective treatment for sacral chordoma is still surgical resection. However, there is no convincing evidence and risk ratio about sacral chordoma patients would be benefit from which kind of surgical margin. Methods.. We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and...
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: LITERATURE REVIEW Source Type: research
Conclusion. Patients with positive surgical margins benefit from adjuvant RT. Optimal OS is associated with adjuvant RT administered with advanced techniques and cumulative dose more than 65 Gy. Level of Evidence: 4
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: SURGERY Source Type: research
Authors: Carkic J, Nikolic N, Nisevic J, Lazarevic M, Kuzmanovic-Pficer J, Jelovac D, Milasin J Abstract Oral carcinoma is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with survival rates of approximately 50%. The major type of oral cancer, present in 90% of the cases, is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The genetic background predisposing an individual to OSCC is complex and largely unknown. Studies have suggested that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms modulate the cancer risk, prompting us to assess the impact of three functional eNOS gene polymorphisms on OSCC risk. The present study...
Source: Journal of oral science - Category: Dentistry Tags: J Oral Sci Source Type: research
Purpose of review Genome instability has long been implicated as a primary causal factor in cancer and diseases of aging. The genome is constantly under attack from extrinsic and intrinsic damaging agents. Uracil misincorporation in DNA and its repair is an intrinsic factor resulting in genomic instability and DNA mutations. Additionally, the presence of uracil in DNA can modify gene expression by interfering with promoter binding and transcription inhibition or upregulation of apoptotic proteins. In immune cells, uracil in DNA drives beneficial genomic diversity for antigen-driven immunity. This review addresses disease...
Source: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care - Category: Nutrition Tags: GENES AND CELL METABOLISM: Edited by Anastasia Z. Kalea and Dorothy Klimis-Zacas Source Type: research
Conclusion: Both ESTD and ESD are safe and effective therapies for early-stage esophageal cancer wider than or equal to one half the esophageal circumference. The dissection speed of ESTD is faster than that of ESD.
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ALIMENTARY TRACT: Original Articles Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: A hybrid robotic transanal minimally invasive surgery approach allows for complete resection of very large polyps, which would otherwise be extremely challenging with standard transanal approaches. See Video at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B231.
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
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