Cervical cancer prevention and screening: The role of human papillomavirus testing

Key content An organised screening programme has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in the UK. Cervical screening aims to detect and treat premalignant, low‐ or high‐grade disease. Oncogenic or high‐risk human papillomaviruses (HR‐HPV) account for over 99.7% of cervical cancer cases; the most common subtypes are HPV‐16, 18, 31, 33 and 45. HPV vaccination was introduced as part of the childhood vaccination programme in 2008 and will probably save 400 lives per year. HPV testing is useful: in triage of women with borderline or low‐grade cytology; as a test of cure after treatment, in the management of uncertainty, and in primary HPV screening. Learning objectives To review the history of cervical screening and colposcopy. To understand the role of HR‐HPV in the development of cervical premalignancy and malignancy. To understand the potential of HPV vaccination and the uses of HPV testing in reducing the burden of cervical cancer. Ethical issues HPV infection is common, so should women with only transient HPV infection be informed of their diagnoses, given that disclosures provide little benefit and may cause significant emotional harm? HPV is related to other premalignant and malignant diseases of the lower genital tract and oropharynx affecting males and females. Should boys therefore be also offered HPV vaccination?
Source: The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

Related Links:

Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Yanhua Liu, Yang Li, Shanshan Dong, Lu Han, Ruixin Guo, Yourong Fu, Shenghu Zhang, Jianqiu Chen
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Musio F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anemia has and will continue to be a central theme in medicine particularly as clinicians are treating a burgeoning population of complex multi-organ system processes. As a result of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses, and societal recommendations overly restrictive paradigms and under-administration of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have likely been followed by clinicians among all specialties. AREAS COVERED: A review of anemia in the context of chronic kidney disease, hematologic malignancies and cancer is presented with focus on the e...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2021Source: Urology Case Reports, Volume 34Author(s): Nina Al-Saadi, Safa Al-Musawi, Yousuf Khan, Daben Dawam
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Authors: Matti B, Zargar-Shoshtari K Abstract Prostate cancer represents a significant health burden worldwide. The cancer incidence had substantially increased since the introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in cancer screening. This had led to considerable debates among health professionals and epidemiologists, since PSA as a screening tool seemed to be far from perfect. In New Zealand, the controversy was quite prominent in the last three decades, with some advocating the benefits of screening, while others concerned regarding the risk of harms. With the absence of an organised screening programme and ...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study found that childhood cancer survivors in New Zealand had a high prevalence of developmental dental abnormalities and it identified potential risk factors related to their cancer treatment. Inequitable access to oral rehabilitation for this patient group argues for a mechanism for consistent improved access to publicly funded dental care across district health boards in New Zealand. PMID: 33032302 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Zarrabi A, Mark S PMID: 33032299 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Peng C, Cohen DJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cancer remains an important cause of mortality worldwide with two new immunotherapy drugs recently approved for metastatic disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the epidemiology and genomics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. They also examine prior trials involving targeted agents under investigation as well immunotherapies that have been approved and novel combinations. EXPERT OPINION: Great advances have been made in characterizing the molecular changes in esophageal carcinoma. However, relatively few drugs have shown benefit i...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
This article summarizes the rationale for, and development of CDK inhibitors in melanoma, with their evolution from pan-CDK inhibitors to highly specific agents, throughout clinical trials and finally their potential future use. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst CDK inhibitors have been practice changing in breast cancer management, their efficacy is yet to be proven in melanoma. Combination with BRAF/MEK inhibitors has been hindered by dose-limiting toxicities, but their role may yet to be found within the spectrum of biomarker-derived personalized melanoma management. The effect that CDK inhibitors can have as an adjunct to imm...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
This article provides recommendations to help pediatric and family practice providers increase rates of uptake of the HPV vaccine among adolescent patients, including communication strategies, and practice improvements that encourage vaccination.
Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners - Category: Nursing Authors: Tags: Featured Article Source Type: research
In this study it was assumed that there was no immunity following resolution of natural infection. The modeling demonstrated that a vaccine of moderate efficacy could have a significant impact on the prevalence of gonorrhea if strategically implemented (23). While encouraging it does, of course, depend on the availability of a vaccine. From Ecological Data to Evidence The epidemiological evidence from Cuba, Brazil, and New Zealand demonstrates that N. meningitidis OMV vaccines are possibly able to provide some broader protection against meningococcal disease (17, 24), particularly in older children and adults (25). These...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
More News: Boys | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Vaccines | Cervical Cancer | Cervical Cancer Vaccine | Child Development | Childhood Cancer | Colposcopy | Cytology | Genital Warts | HPV Testing | Human Papillomavirus (HPV) | Learning | Medical Ethics | OBGYN | Oropharyngeal Cancer | Universities & Medical Training | Vaccines | Women