Duke Scientists Identify Method of Action for Common Chemotherapy Drugs

Contact: Amara Omeokwe Phone: 919-681-4239 Email: amara.omeokwe@duke.edu https://www.dukehealth.org FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE on Tuesday, June 14, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. -- A study by scientists at Duke Health is providing insight into how certain commonly-used chemotherapy drugs work, potentially opening new ways to enhance the benefits of treatment for cancer patients. The scientists focused on antimetabolites, chemotherapy drugs that target metabolism in cancer cells and induce cell death. These drugs are commonly used to treat colon, lung and blood cancers. Their study, published this week in the journal Cell Reports, sought a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms at play when treatment with antimetabolites proves effective. The researchers found in several experimental models, including cultured cancer cells, that altering the cancer cells’ metabolism led to certain nutrients actually spilling out of the cells, instead of being incorporated as building blocks to make new cancer cells. The study’s authors suggest that monitoring these excreted nutrients could be a means of assessing how well cancer cells are responding to the antimetabolite therapies. While antimetabolite chemotherapy is widely used, the authors note that it can be highly toxic with varying effectiveness. “In the future, these mechanisms could possibly be used to either identify patients who would respond to these drugs, or to monitor these metabolic mechanisms in patients when t...
Source: DukeHealth.org: Duke Health Features - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Duke Medicine Source Type: news

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Emerging evidence supports a prognostic role of primary tumor location in metastatic colon cancer (mCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the effect of tumor location on prognosis and efficacy of biological agents (anti-EGFR, Cetuximab and Panitumumab, or anti-VEGF, Bevacizumab) added to first-line chemotherapy in patients with RAS wild-type (wt) mCC. Patients with newly diagnosed RAS wt mCC candidates to first-line chemotherapy with anti-EGFRs or Bevacizumab were selected. Clinical outcomes were assessed and stratified by tumor location and type of treatment. Overall, 351 patients met the inclusion criter...
Source: Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Conditions:   Gastric Cancer;   Colon Cancer Intervention:   Drug: adjuvant chemotherapy Sponsor:   The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
The objective of the present review was to assess the most recent data, specifically addressing methods of risk stratification, duration of therapy, and future directions. Methods: PubMed and medline were searched for literature pertinent to adjuvant chemotherapy in either stage ii or stage iii colorectal cancer. Summary: Locoregional disease, histopathology, age, laterality, and a number of other biologic and molecular markers appear to have a role in disease risk stratification. The duration of adjuvant therapy for stage iii disease can vary based on risk factors, but use of adjuvant therapy and duration of thera...
Source: Current Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Curr Oncol Source Type: research
Conclusions: Adjuvant fluoropyrimidine alone is the most optimal regimen for patients with high-risk stage II colon adenocarcinoma compared with the other adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. Adjuvant FOLFOX can serve as an optimal regimen for patients with pathologic stage III colon adenocarcinoma, regardless of age, sex, or tumor location.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitizes tumor cells to TTFields. Human HCT116 and SW480 CRC cells were treated with 5-FU and/or TTFields, and characterized in vitro in terms of cell viability, apoptosis through reactive oxygen species production, autophagy, and metastatic potentials. The biological effects of 5-FU and/or TTFields were studied via positron emission tomography and computed tomography on xenograft tumor growth and were confirmed with organoid models of patients. Our results revealed that combination treatment with 5-FU and TTFields increased the efficiency of TTF...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
We present two cases which are specific for unusual location of Burkitt lymphoma in the colon and stomach, in immunocompetent patients with negative Epstein-Barr virus tests. Also, one of the patients presented is one of the oldest ever reported with abdominal Burkitt lymphoma, while the other patient is an example of diagnostic difficulties in distinguishing Burkitt lymphoma from similar lymphomas. Due to the rapidly growing tumors and urgent need for cytoreductive surgery, it is crucial to consider the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma even in atypical localizations or absence of the common risk factors associated with Burki...
Source: Acta Clinica Croatica - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Clin Croat Source Type: research
In conclusion, Melatonin possesses an antioxidant effect that can protect the sciatic nerve from degeneration and potentiate VCR's anticancer effect at the same time.
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeColon cancer is predominantly a disease of older adults. Studies determining the influence of age on outcomes of colon cancer have conflicting results. We aim to determine the long-term outcomes and utilisation of adjuvant chemotherapy of older adults compared with younger adults who had had a resection of a primary colon cancer.MethodsConsecutive patients who had resection of a primary colon cancer between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were identified from a prospective database and stratified into three age groups: ≤ 69 years, 70 to 79 years, and ≥ 80 years. Age-related differences in patient...
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Collectively, successful delivery of miR and chemotherapy by pH ‐responsive targeting nanoparticles modulates β‐catenin/multiple drug resistance/apoptosis/metastasis pathways and induces cancer cell death, mainly via apoptosis. These pH‐sensitive targeting nanoparticles carrying chemotherapy and gene therapeutics remarkably enhance anticancer efficacy in tumor‐bearing mice. Thus, these nanoparticles may provide a potential regimen for effective treatment of colorectal cancer. AbstractIrinotecan is one of the main chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer (CRC). MicroRNA ‐200 (miR‐200) has been reported...
Source: Small - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research
Condition:   Locally Advanced Colon Cancer Intervention:   Combination Product: CAPECITABINE AND OXALIPLATIN Sponsor:   Universidad de León Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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