Viral vectors as vaccine platforms: from immunogenicity to impact.

Viral vectors as vaccine platforms: from immunogenicity to impact. Curr Opin Immunol. 2016 Jun 7;41:47-54 Authors: Ewer KJ, Lambe T, Rollier CS, Spencer AJ, Hill AV, Dorrell L Abstract Viral vectors are the vaccine platform of choice for many pathogens that have thwarted efforts towards control using conventional vaccine approaches. Although the STEP trial encumbered development of recombinant human adenovirus vectors only a few years ago, replication-deficient simian adenoviruses have since emerged as a crucial component of clinically effective prime-boost regimens. The vectors discussed here elicit functionally relevant cellular and humoral immune responses, at extremes of age and in diverse populations. The recent Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the utility of viral vectored vaccines in facilitating a rapid response to public health emergencies. Meanwhile, technological advances in manufacturing to support scale-up of viral vectored vaccines have helped to consolidate their position as a leading approach to tackling 'old' and emerging infections. PMID: 27286566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research

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Abstract Despite the fact that there had been multiple small outbreaks of Ebola Virus Disease, when a large outbreak occurred in 2014 there were no vaccines or drugs available for use. Clinical development of multiple candidate vaccines was then initiated in parallel with attempts to contain the outbreak but only one vaccine was eventually tested in a phase III trial. In order to be better prepared for future outbreaks of known human pathogens, platform technologies to accelerate vaccine development should be employed, allowing vaccine developers to take advantage of detailed knowledge of the vaccine platform and ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
The 2013 –16 epidemic of Ebola virus disease in west Africa was a game changer—not only in terms of the location and dimension of the outbreak and with regards to many painful lessons learnt about the epidemiology, features, and management of the disease, but also in terms of furthering the development o f monoclonal antibody treatments1,2 and, most importantly, vaccines. Besides the replicative vector-based rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine,3,4 which has yielded high efficacy in an interim analysis of an open-label, cluster-randomised ring vaccination trial in Guinea,5 a range of other candidate vaccines have pro gressed int...
Source: LANCET - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Comment Source Type: research
Background: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) has claimed> 11,000 lives. No vaccines or antivirals are available for EHF, but are currently the subject of intense investigations. Several vaccines targeting the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) are currently under different phases of clinical testing, where GP is delivered through chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) 3 (GlaxoSmithKline), vesicular stomatitis virus (Merck), human Ad26 and35 (Johnson &Johnson) or human Ad5 (Beijing Institute of Biotechnology and Tianjin CanSino Biotechnology).
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Abstract The 2014 Ebola virus outbreak caused an order of magnitude more deaths in a single outbreak than all previous known outbreaks combined, affecting both local and international public health, and threatening the security and economic stability of the countries in West Africa directly confronting the outbreak. The severity of the epidemic lead to a global response to assist with patient care, outbreak control, and deployment of vaccines. The latter was possible due to the long history of basic and clinical research aimed at identifying a safe and effective vaccine to protect against Ebola virus infection. Th...
Source: Current Opinion in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Immunol Source Type: research
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Source: The Lancet - Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research
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