Causality of small and large intestinal microbiota in weight regulation and insulin resistance

Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016 Source:Molecular Metabolism Author(s): Torsten P.M. Scheithauer, Geesje M. Dallinga-Thie, Willem M. de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H. van Raalte Background The twin pandemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. Scope of Review We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance. Major conclusions Altered large intestinal microbial composition may promote obesity by increasing energy harvest through specialized gut microbes. In both large and small intestine, microbial alterations may increase gut permeability that facilitates the translocation of whole bacteria or endotoxic bacterial components into metabolic active tissues. Moreover, changed microbial communities may affect the production of satiety-inducing signals. Finally, bacterial metabolic products, such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and their relative ratios, may be causal in disturbed immune and metabolic signaling, notably in the small intestine where the surface is large. The f...
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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In this study, we found that Lnc-OC1 was significantly higher in PCOS granulosa cells (GCs) compared to non-PCOS GCs. Lnc-OC1 knockdown inhibited cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis, expression of aromatase mRNA and production of estradiol in KGN cells. In PCOS mice, Lnc-OC1 promoted the serum insulin release, production of angiogenesis-related factors and IκBα phosphorylation, which could be partially restored by Lnc-OC1 shRNA. These results suggest that Lnc-OC1 plays an important part in the pathogenesis of PCOS.
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study provides fundamental insights on the molecular mechanisms underlying POMC neuron malprogramming in obesogenic contexts.Graphical abstract
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: Canadian Journal of DiabetesAuthor(s): Tomoyuki Kawada
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This article aims to classify the severity grading assessments for both insulin resistance (IR) syndrome and status of pancreatic beta (β) islet cells’ function using the homeostasis model assessment method (that is; homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and homeostasis model assessment-pancreatic beta (β) islet cells’ function [HOMA-B] indices) with the focus of disseminating this information rapidly for clinical use by physicians in their patients with dysfunctional regulation of glucose metabolism. It will also assist clinicians to prevent and screen for these individuals who ar...
Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, the core-shell polydopamine-coated magnetic nanomaterials were synthesized with one-step approach and applied as magnetic solid phase extraction adsorbents combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of the diabetes drug glimepiride in beagle dog plasma. The Fe3O4@PDA nanomaterials have strong magnetic response, good dispersibility in aqueous solution, and numerous binding sites for π–π interaction and hydrogen bonding with glimepiride. Based on these merits, glimepiride could be quickly extracted and separated from plasma within 10min. The established method has good linearity (1-2000ng•mL-1)...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Authors: Bartelt A, Widenmaier SB Abstract The proper production, degradation, folding and activity of proteins, proteostasis, is essential for any cellular function. From single cell organisms to humans, selective pressures have led to the evolution of adaptive programs that ensure proteins are properly produced and disposed of when necessary. Environmental factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, pathogens as well as predators have greatly influenced the development of mechanisms such the unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation and autophagy, working together in ...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
Authors: Oliveira A, Simões S, Ascenso A, Reis CP Abstract Wound healing is a complex physiological process that occurs in the human body involving the sequential activation of multiple cell types and signaling pathways in a coordinated manner.Chronic wounds and burns clearly decrease quality of life of the patients since they are associated with an increase in physical pain and socio-economical complications. Furthermore, incidence and prevalence of chronic wounds (unlike burns) have been increasing mainly due to population aging resulting in increased costs for national health systems. Thus, the developmen...
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
Authors: Augstburger E, Héron E, Abanou A, Habas C, Baudouin C, Labbe A Abstract Ischemic optic neuropathies are among the leading causes of severe visual acuity loss in people over 50 years of age. They constitute a set of various entities that are clinically, etiologically and therapeutically different. Anatomically, it is necessary to distinguish anterior and posterior forms. From an etiological point of view, the diagnosis of the arteritic form due to giant cell arteritis requires emergent management to prevent blindness and even death in the absence of prompt corticosteroid treatment. When this diagnosi...
Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie - Category: Opthalmology Tags: J Fr Ophtalmol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Yao-Chang Liu, Jen-Pi Tsai, Li-Hsuan Wang, Ming-Che Lee, Bang-Gee HsuAbstractBackgroundFibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has a role in arterial stiffness (AS) apart from regulating mineral metabolism. We investigated the association between FGF-23 concentration and peripheral AS in renal transplantation (RT) recipients.MethodsThe fasting blood samples of RT recipients (n=66) were collected and analyzed.ResultsA total of 29 (43.9%) RT recipients were classified under the peripheral AS group. The RT recipients in this group had a hig...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Assaraf J, Lambrescak E, Lefèvre JH, de Parades V, Bourguignon J, Etienney I, Taouk M, Atienza P, Zeitoun JD Abstract Purpose: Anal fistula is a common condition in proctology, usually requiring surgical treatment. Few risk factors are clearly identified based on solid evidence. Our research objective was to determine whether a history of anal surgery was a risk factor for subsequent anal fistula. Methods: We conducted a case-control study from January 1st 2012 through December 31st 2013 in our tertiary center. 280 cases that underwent surgery for anal fistula and 123 control patients seeking a ...
Source: Annals of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Coloproctol Source Type: research
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