Molecular oncogenesis of chondrosarcoma: impact for targeted treatment

Purpose of review: The prognosis of patients with unresectable or metastatic chondrosarcoma of the bone is poor. Chondrosarcomas are in general resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review discusses recent developments in the characterization of molecular pathways involved in the oncogenesis of chondrosarcoma that should be explored to improve prognosis of patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. Recent findings: The different oncogenic pathways for chondrosarcoma have become better defined. These include alterations in pathways such as isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, hedgehog signalling, the retinoblastoma protein and p53 pathways, apoptosis and survival mechanisms, and several tyrosine kinases. These specific alterations can be employed for use in clinical interventions in advanced chondrosarcoma. Summary: As many different genetic alterations in chondrosarcoma have been identified, it is of the utmost importance to classify druggable targets that may improve the prognosis of chondrosarcoma patients. In recent years an increased number of trials evaluating targeted therapies are being conducted. As chondrosarcoma is an orphan disease consequently all studies are performed with small numbers of patients. The results of clinical studies so far have been largely disappointing. Therapeutic intervention studies of these new targets emerging from preclinical studies are of highest importance to improve prognosis of chondrosarcoma patients with advanced disease.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and PathologyAuthor(s): Takuya Tanaka, Koji Nakamatsu, Takahisa ImamuraAbstractOral cavity metastasis of malignancies is infrequent and that of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is extremely rare. A 66-year-old man was referred to our hospital complaining of a growing tumor at the left buccal gingiva of the maxilla (L12). The tumor was 15 mm diameter, accompanying a diffuse absorption of the maxillary alveolar bone. The tumor consisted of atypical epithelioid cells forming trabecular or alveolar structu...
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Authors: Ciftciler R, Haznedaroglu IC, Ozcebe O, Aksu S, Sayınalp N, Goker H, Demiroglu H, Buyukasık Y Abstract Background and Aim: Recently, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has shifted from the most hazardous to the best curable type of acute myeloid leukemia. Anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic derivatives are the most important developments for the treatment of APL. ATRA promotes the terminal differentiation of malignant promyelocytes to mature neutrophils. We aimed to compare platelet and neutrophil recovery time after induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (A...
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
In conclusion, these results suggested that the constructed stimuli-responsive co-delivery system may hold the promise for cancer therapeutic application.Graphical abstractThe UV-light cross-linked and pH de-cross-linked coumarin-decorated cationic copolymer grafted mesoporous silica nanoparticles for codelivery of 5-FU and p53 gene: UV-light induced cross-linking of coumarin moieties on the nanoparticle surface achieve good encapsulation of 5-FU with little premature release at physiological pH, but the cis-aconityl bonds connecting coumarin moieties to copolymer backbone was broken up in acidic environment, leading to de...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Authors: Hundeshagen G, Kneser U Abstract We have read the article by Hanada et al1 from the July 2019 issue of Wounds with great interest and acknowledge that split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) following sarcoma resection is a feasible and noninvasive means of defect reconstruction. The comparison to traumatic defects certainly underpins the safety and efficacy of the method. However, regarding the given defect sizes and localizations, as well as associated defects in tissue volume, we propose free or pedicled flap reconstruction not only would have been feasible, but superior to STSG in most of their1 cases. ...
Source: Wounds - Category: General Medicine Tags: Wounds Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate an oncogenic role of miR-652 in uveal melanoma, showing that miR-652 may be a useful biomarker for prediction of prognosis for patients with uveal melanoma. PMID: 31740654 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
This study was aimed to test the authenticity of the hypothesis. Uveal melanoma MP65 cells were transfected for expression of KRas mutated. H2A.X phosphorylation and ERK1/2 was measured, and transwell experiment was performed to examine the consequents of H2A.XY39ph on MP65 cells developing and migration. Regulatory relationship between H2A.XY39ph and ERK1/2 downstream genes were measured. Moreover, whether JMJD6 and MDM2 are involved in H2A.X phosphorylation was studied. Mutation of Ras activated ERK1/2 signalling and inhibited H2A.X phosphorylation at Y39. Silence of H2A.XY39ph contributed to the regulation of MP65 cells...
Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Tags: Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol Source Type: research
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Source: Indian Heart Journal - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
(World Scientific) In apaper to be published in the forthcoming issue in NANO, researchers from Harbin Institute of Technology, China have systematically discussed the recent progresses, current challenges and future perspectives of smart graphene-based nanoplatforms for synergistic tumor therapy and bio-imaging.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Reprogrammed glucose metabolism and increased glycolysis have been implicated in tumor chemoresistance. The aim was to investigate the distinct roles of the glucose metabolites pyruvate and ATP in chemoresistance mechanisms, including cell death and proliferation. Our data showed higher glucose transporters in colorectal cancer (CRC) from non-responsive patients than those responsive to chemotherapy. Human CRC cell lines exposed to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) displayed elevated cell viability and larger tumors in xenograft mouse models if cultured in high-glucose medium. Glucose conferred resistance to 5-FU-induced necroptosis v...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The objective of our research is to assess the effect of radiotherapy coupled with TMZ in high-risk patients with LGGs after surgery, compared with RT alone. Different histological types and molecular subtypes will be examined, and a corresponding subgroup analysis will be conducted. Our data can provide evidence for postoperative adjuvant therapy in patients with high-risk LGGs in China.Trial registrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry,ChiCTR1800015199. Registered on 13 March 2018.
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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