Ocular and orbital side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors: a review article

Purpose of review: Checkpoint inhibitors have been increasingly considered as new targets for cancer therapies. Patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors develop many immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). However, ophthalmic IRAEs are rare and have been reported in less than 1% of patients. To date, few case reports evaluating the ophthalmological side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors have been published. In this review, we plan to report the different ocular and orbital side-effects of the checkpoint inhibitors, and to help guide ophthalmologists and oncologists in their management. Recent findings: Ocular side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors include peripheral ulcerative keratitis, uveitis, Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome, choroidal neovascularization and melanoma-associated retinopathy. Both thyroid-associated orbitopathy and idiopathic orbital inflammation have also been reported in association with checkpoint inhibitors. Mild IRAE can be treated with topical steroids, whereas systemic corticosteroids and discontinuation of checkpoint inhibitors are indicated in more severe ocular and orbital inflammation. Summary: Physicians involved in the care of oncologic patients should be aware of the ocular and orbital IRAEs that may develop with checkpoint inhibitors. A strong cooperation between oncologists and ophthalmologists is required in the diagnosis and prompt management of these IRAEs.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Related Links:

Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, osmotic burst of inflated complement-damaged cells may occur, but these bursts are most likely a consequence of metabolic collapse of the cell rather than the cause of cell death. The Complement Cell Death Mediator: A Concerted Action of Toxic Moieties Membrane pores caused by complement were first visualized by electron microscopy on red blood cell membranes as large ring structures (22). Similar lesions were viewed on E. coli cell walls (23). Over the years, ample information on the fine ultrastructure of the MAC that can activate cell death has been gathered (24) and has been recently further examined (...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: In a tertiary referral service, uveal metastasis originates from cancer in the breast, lung, kidney, GI tract, cutaneous melanoma, or others. Overall prognosis is poor with 5-year survival at 23% and worst survival with pancreatic metastasis whereas best survival with lung carcinoid metastasis.
Source: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Whole-body PET/CT and abdominal ultrasound complement each other in the staging of uveal melanoma. Benign hepatic abnormalities found using ultrasound is common. Of importance, a second asymptomatic primary malignancy associated with uveal melanoma was detected almost one in 10 patients.
Source: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Familial risks of breast cancer (BC) are well established but whether BC clusters with other, i.e. discordant, cancers is less certain but of interest for the identification of common genetic and possible environmental factors contributing to a general cancer susceptibility. We apply a novel approach to search for familial associations of BC with other (discordant) cancers based on the Swedish Family‐Cancer Database. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated for BC in families with increasing numbers of patients with discordant cancer X, and conversely, familial RRs for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsBreast cancer is most common in development of metastatic tumors. Medical history data, clinical and instrumental findings are informative to suggest malignancy in orbit, requiring the need for morphological verification of the diagnosis for adequate therapy.
Source: Acta Ophthalmologica - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Abstracts from the 2016 European Association for Vision and Eye Research Conference Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 December 2015 Source:Cancer Genetics Author(s): Kevin McDonnell, Gregory T. Gallanis, Kathleen A. Heller, Eleni-Marina Melas, Gregory Idos, Julie O. Culver, Sue-Ellen Martin, David H. Peng, Stephen B. Gruber Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA-1 associated protein (BAP1), underlie a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by increased risk for numerous cancers including uveal melanoma, melanocytic tumors and mesothelioma, among others. In the present study we report the identification of a novel germline BAP1 mutation, c.1777C>T, which produces a tru...
Source: Cancer Genetics - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA-1 associated protein (BAP1), underlie a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by increased risk for numerous cancers including uveal melanoma, melanocytic tumors and mesothelioma, among others. In the present study we report the identification of a novel germline BAP1 mutation, c.1777C>T, which produces a truncated BAP1 protein product and segregates with cancer. Family members with this mutation demonstrated a primary clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant, early-onset melanocytic neoplasms with immunohistochemistry (IHC) of these tumors demonstrating lack o...
Source: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA-1 associated protein (BAP1), underlie a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by increased risk for numerous cancers including uveal melanoma, melanocytic tumors and mesothelioma, among others. In the present study we report the identification of a novel germline BAP1 mutation, c.1777C>T, which produces a truncated BAP1 protein product and segregates with cancer. Family members with this mutation demonstrated a primary clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant, early-onset melanocytic neoplasms with immunohistochemistry (IHC) of these tumors demonstrating lack o...
Source: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We report a rare and unique case of choroidal metastasis from PTC that presented with concurrent new dermal metastasis in addition to lung and mediastinal lymph node progression. Furthermore, our patient developed choroid and dermal lesions while on a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and remained stable without recurrence in these regions after switching to an alternate multikinase inhibitor. PMID: 25872533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
More News: Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer Therapy | Corticosteroid Therapy | Eye Cancers | Melanoma | Opthalmology | Skin Cancer | Thyroid | Thyroid Cancer | Uveal Melanoma