Melasma and Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation: Management Update and Expert Opinion.

Melasma and Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation: Management Update and Expert Opinion. Skin Therapy Lett. 2016 Jan;21(1):1-7 Authors: Sofen B, Prado G, Emer J Abstract Dyschromia is a leading cause for cosmetic consultation, especially in those with diverse skin types (mixture of ethnicities) and with the rise of non-core and untrained physicians performing cosmetic procedures. Melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) account for the majority of cases and are characterized by pigmented macules and patches distributed symmetrically in sun-exposed areas of the forehead, cheeks, and chin in melasma, and irregularly in areas of inflammation or an inciting traumatic event with PIH. Treatment is challenging and focused on a variety of mechanisms to stop, hinder, and/or prevent steps in the pigment production (melanocytic hyperactivity) process, breaking down deposited pigment for internal removal or external release, exfoliating cells to enhance turnover, and decreasing inflammation. Topical lightening therapy in combination with sun protection is essential for potential improvement. The most commonly prescribed and researched topical lightening agents are hydroquinone (HQ), azelaic acid (AzA), and retinoids - although only HQ and a triple combination cream (Tri-Luma®; fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, HQ 4%, tretinoin 0.05%) are US FDA-approved for "bleaching of hyperpigmented skin" (HQ) and "melasma" (Tri-Luma®). Numerous...
Source: Skin Therapy Letter - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Skin Therapy Lett Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 10 November 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Alessio Bellato, Iti Arora, Chris Hollis, Madeleine J. GroomAbstractAlthough arousal mechanisms have frequently been found to be atypical in ADHD, these findings usually emerged from indirect behavioural measures which give only a limited understanding of arousal dysregulation in this condition. To assess the hypothesis that functioning of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), one component of arousal, is atypical in ADHD, we carried out a systematic review of the literature on 55 studies investigating electro-dermal,...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the potential of caffeine in preventing behavioral outcomes, neurodegeneration and synaptic proteins alterations in a mice model of agitated depression by bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OB). For this purpose, bulbectomized mice received caffeine (0.3 g/L and 1.0 g/L, drinking water), during the active cycle, for seven weeks (two before the surgery and throughout five weeks after OB). Caffeine prevented OB­induced hyperactivity and recognition memory impairment and rescue self care and motivational behavior. In the frontal cortex, bulbectomized mice presented increase in the adenosine...
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we proposed a dynamical systems perspective to assess how the DMN over time recruits different configurations of network segregation and integration. Specifically, we were interested in configurations for which both intra- and inter-network connections are retained, as opposed to commonly used methods which assess network segregation as a single measure. From resting-state fMRI data, we extracted three different stable configurations of FC patterns for the DMN, namely synergies. We provided evidence supporting our hypothesis that ADHD differs compared to controls, both in terms of recruitment rate and topolo...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Yan Zeng, Ying Tang, Yan Yue, Wenxing Li, Xia Qiu, Peng Hu, Jun Tang, Huiqing Wang, Xiaoyan Yang, Yi Qu, Dezhi MuAbstractWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between parental diabetes mellitus and the risk of ADHD in offspring. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to May 31, 2019. Thirteen observational studies containing 5,052,736 participants were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Few if any experts believe that existing psychiatric diagnostic categories included in the DSM/ICD are actually discrete disease entities. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is emblematic of the problems in the existing psychiatric classification system. ADHD symptoms reliably cluster into two correlated dimensions in factor analysis. However, children with ADHD vary considerably in their symptom profiles, symptom trajectories, clinical outcomes, and biological and psychological correlates.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
While there are a number of drugs to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), they can have some pretty serious side effects. Researchers in Singapore at the country’s Institute of Mental Health (IMH), Duke-NUS (National Universit...
Source: Medgadget - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: Neurology Pediatrics Psychiatry Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Uday Singh, Manoj Upadhya, Sumela Basu, Omprakash Singh, Santosh Kumar, Dadasaheb M. Kokare, Praful S. SingruAbstractThermosensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are widely expressed in the brain and known to profoundly influence Ca2+-signaling, neurotransmitter release and behavior. While these channels are expressed in the cerebellum, neuronal firing and hyperactivity/reflexes seem associated with cerebellar temperature modulation. However, the distribution and functional significance of TRPV-equipped elements in th...
Source: Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2019Source: Food Research InternationalAuthor(s): Samad Ghaffari, Neda RoshanravanAbstractHypertension (HTN) is a worldwide epidemic in both developed and developing countries. It is one of the leading causes of major health problems such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, and heart attack. In recent years, several studies have reported associations between specific dietary ingredients and improving HTN. Nutraceuticals are natural food components with pharmacological properties. Reports suggest that functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients might support patients to obtain...
Source: Food Research International - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
This study aims to analyze the effect of stimulant on processing speed performance and attention indices in children with ASD and ADHD.Methods: Forty children aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD who also met the criteria for ADHD were recruited. All children performed a computerized performance test for the assessment of cognitive attention performance three times: twice while they are drug naïve and once an hour after taking a single dose of 10 mg. methylphenidate (MPH). This performance was compared to a group of children diagnosed with 'ADHD only' without ASD.Results: A significant difference (p 
Source: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Nord J Psychiatry Source Type: research
[Neurobehavioral Comorbidities in Pentylenetetrazol-kindled Mice and Role of the α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2019;139(11):1397-1402 Authors: Takechi K Abstract Patients with epilepsy are often affected by not only seizures but also a variety of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that further impair their quality of life. However, it is unclear whether epilepsy is associated with psychic function. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of kindling-induced epileptic seizures on psychic functioning, using behavioral pharmacological tests. Pent...
Source: Yakugaku Zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Yakugaku Zasshi Source Type: research
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