Genomic insights into the emergence and spread of international clones of healthcare-, community- and livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: blurring of the traditional definitions

Publication date: Available online 17 May 2016 Source:Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance Author(s): A.M. Bal, G.W. Coombs, M.T.G. Holden, J.A. Lindsay, G.R. Nimmo, P. Tattevin, R.L. Skov The evolution of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from meticillin-susceptible S. aureus has been a result of the accumulation of genetic elements under selection pressure from antibiotics. The traditional classification of MRSA into healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) is no longer relevant as there is significant overlap of identical clones between these groups, with an increasing recognition of human infection caused by livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Genomic studies have enabled us to model the epidemiology of MRSA along these lines. In this review, we discuss the clinical relevance of genomic studies, particularly whole-genome sequencing, in the investigation of outbreaks. We also discuss the blurring of each of the three epidemiological groups (HA-MRSA, CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA), demonstrating the limited relevance of this classification.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Conclusions: We present the most detailed genomic analysis of MRSA isolated in Sri Lanka to date. The analysis identified a PVL-positive ST5-MRSA-IVc that is prevalent among MRSA causing clinical infections in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, this clone was also found among isolates from the United Kingdom and Australia. Introduction Worldwide, Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and is an important cause of hospital-associated invasive infections including bacteremia, pneumonia and endocarditis (Bell et al., 2002; David and Daum, 2010). Panton-Va...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe demonstrate the potential utility of combined epidemiological and genomic MRSA BSI surveillance to determine the national population structure of MRSA, contextualise previous MRSA outbreaks, and detect potentially high-risk lineages. These findings support the integration of epidemiological and genomic surveillance for MRSA BSI as a step towards a comprehensive surveillance programme in England. PMID: 30696529 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
Abstract Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare‐associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community‐associated MRSA (CA‐MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA‐MRSA, livestock‐associated MRSA (LA‐MRSA) and HA‐MRSA (HA‐MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates. Molecular typing studies have reveale...
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsBased on our model, MRSA elimination from nursing homes, while theoretically possible, was unlikely to be achieved in practice. Decolonization therapy that can sustain higher clearance rates or lower MRSA-positive introductions over years may reduce strain-specific prevalence of MRSA in the facilities, and antibiotic stewardship may contribute to this effort. Large-scale MRSA outbreaks were unlikely in this setting.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2016 Source:Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance Author(s): Raju Sunagar, Nagendra Ramachandra Hegde, Ganapuram Jagadishwar Archana, Akhauri Yash Sinha, Kammili Nagamani, Shrikrishna Isloor Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious human pathogen that can cause a wide variety of infections. Comparative genetic analyses have led to the discovery that despite the existence of a vast number of genotypes, outbreak strains of MRSA appear to be limited to certain genotypes, some of which are further restricted to certain geographical locations. Whereas ext...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
The correct interpretation of microbial sequencing data applied to surveillance and outbreak investigation depends on accessible genomic databases to provide vital genetic context. Our aim was to construct and describe a United Kingdom MRSA database containing over 1000 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomes drawn from England, Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and the Republic of Ireland over a decade. We sequenced 1013 MRSA submitted to the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy by 46 laboratories between 2001 and 2010. Each isolate was assigned to a regional healthcare referral network in En...
Source: Genome Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: RESOURCES Source Type: research
Carrie Arnold is a freelance science writer living in Virginia. Her work has appeared in Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, Smithsonian, and more. Background image: Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: doi:10.5923/s.microbiology.201401.02 About This Article open Citation: Arnold C. 2015. Outbreak breakthrough: using whole-genome sequencing to control hospital infection. Environ Health Perspect 123:A281–A286; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A281 Published: 1 November 2015 PDF Version (2.7 MB) The level of detail provided by whole-genome sequencing could give hospita...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Featured Focus News November 2015 Source Type: research
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