Nuclear DNA gets cut and activates immune system to attack cancer cells

(National University of Singapore) The enzyme MUS81 cuts DNA in the nucleus of cancer cells, causing the cut DNA to move to the cytoplasm instead of becoming degraded. The out-of-place DNA triggers an immune response against cancer cells. Discovering this new means of enhancing anti-cancer immune responses could lead to more effective cancer therapies using a combination of a MUS81-stimulating drug and an immunotherapy.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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CONCLUSIONS TCL-based immunotherapy has discrepant anti-tumor efficiency in different TNBC cell lines by PDL-1/PD interaction, providing the theoretical basis of TCL-based immunotherapy in TNBC. PMID: 30653481 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
A study by UCLA researchers is the first to demonstrate a technique for coaxing pluripotent stem cells — which can give rise to every cell type in the body and which can be grown indefinitely in the lab — into becoming mature T cells capable of killing tumor cells.The technique uses structures called artificial thymic organoids, which work by mimicking the environment of the thymus, the organ in which T cells develop from blood stem cells.T cells are cells of the immune system that fight infections, but also have the potential to eliminate cancer cells. The ability to create them from self-renewing pluripotent ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Authors: De Marinis F, Barberis M, Barbieri V, Marchianò A, Gasparini S, Migliorino MR, Romano G, Spinnato F, Vitiello F, Gridelli C Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the era of personalized cancer therapy, the sampling of adequate tumor tissue for histologic diagnosis and genomic profiling is crucial, not only at the initial diagnosis but also in the event of resistant and recurrent disease when sequential biopsies may be required to evaluate somatic mutations and histologic changes. Areas covered: The identification of genetic driver alterations led to the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from ...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
The innate immune system has evolved as a first line of defense against invading pathogens and acts via classes of germline-encoded receptor systems to respond with proinflammatory cytokines. Innate immune cells, predominantly cells of the myeloid compartment, are capable of providing a potent basis for boosting adaptive immunity in malignant diseases. The authors review their current understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby innate pattern recognition receptors participate in immunosurveillance of cancer cells. They discuss how innate effector mechanisms are currently being targeted pharmacologically and how impro...
Source: Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
nna Natural killer (NK) cells can evoke potent anti-tumour activity. This function is largely mediated through a battery of specialised cell-surface receptors which probe the tissue microenvironment for changes in surface and secretory phenotypes that may alert to the presence of infection or malignancy. These receptors have the potential to arouse the robust cytotoxic and cytokine-secreting functions of NK cells and so must be tightly regulated to prevent autoimmunity. However, such functions also hold great promise for clinical intervention. In this review, we highlight some of the latest breakthroughs in fundamental...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ini Massimo Libra Cancer is a multifactorial pathology and it represents the second leading cause of death worldwide. In the recent years, numerous studies highlighted the dual role of the gut microbiota in preserving host’s health. Gut resident bacteria are able to produce a number of metabolites and bioproducts necessary to protect host’s and gut’s homeostasis. Conversely, several microbiota subpopulations may expand during pathological dysbiosis and therefore produce high levels of toxins capable, in turn, to trigger both inflammation and tumorigenesis. Importantly, gut microbiota can...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
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Source: International Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Int J Oncol Source Type: research
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Source: Ochsner Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Ochsner J Source Type: research
This event will bring together basic research scientists, clinical research scientists and front line physicians who will be discussing the latest immunotherapy breakthroughs in the context or initiation of autoimmune disease. Speakers will cover cancer therapy in the context of existing autoimmunity and the triggering of autoimmunity as a result of the cancer therapy.Air date: 4/16/2019 8:30:00 AM
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video
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