Antibody Appears to Attack Cancer Cells, Leaving Other Cells Unscathed

Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email: EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE until 12 p.m. noon (ET) on Thursday, May 5, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. -- A research team from Duke Health has developed an antibody from the body’s own immune system that preferentially attacks cancer cells. The antibody works by targeting a natural defense mechanism that cancer tumors exploit. Cells in the body essentially use a home security system that relies on certain proteins to protect the cell surface and keep it safe. These proteins help the cell avoid injury and even death from unwanted activation of the immune system. In a paper published online May 5 in Cell Reports, the Duke team describes the workings of a cancer-fighting antibody they discovered, developed and tested in cell lines and animal models. The antibody dismantles a specific part of a cancer cell’s defense system and then employs several mechanisms of attack. "This is the first completely human-derived antibody developed as an anti-cancer therapy, which is very different from other immunotherapy approaches,” said senior author Edward F. Patz, Jr., M.D., the James and Alice Chen Professor of Radiology and professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology at Duke. Patz and colleagues -- including principals from the Duke Human Vaccine Institute who have been advancing the development of antibodies for an HIV vaccine -- started with the observation that some lun...
Source: Duke Health Features - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Duke Medicine Source Type: news

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Authors: Chang CP, Hu MH, Hsiao YP, Wang YC Abstract Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), also known as interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), is one of the natural receptors of IL-33. Three major isoforms, ST2L (transmembrane form), sST2 (soluble form), and ST2V, are generated by alternative splicing. Damage to stromal cells induces necrosis and release of IL-33, which binds to heterodimeric ST2L/IL-1RAcP complex on the membrane of a variety of immune cells. This IL-33/ST2L signal induces transcription of the downstream inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes by activating diverse intracellular kinases and fac...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
In conclusion, FAM83H-AS1 is related with the CDDP and 5-FU insensitivity of GC patients, silence of FAM83H-AS1 promotes chemosensitivity of GC through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, FAM83H-AS1 is related with the CDDP and 5-FU insensitivity of GC patients, silence of FAM83H-AS1 promotes chemosensitivity of GC through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID: 32028241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
Conclusions: Treatment of patients with advanced GC/GEJC with PD-1/PD-L1 targeted did result in an improvement in some but not all survival endpoints. Moreover, it had a comparable toxicity profile as compared with chemotherapy alone. More well designed studies are needed to develop a database of all anti-PD1/PD-L1 sub-groups and their individual impact on the differing anti-PD1/PD-L1 treatments.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research
At the turn of the twentieth century, lung cancer was a rare disease accounting for only 1% of all cancers and found primarily at autopsy. By the 1940s, lung cancer rates had significantly increased. It was the second most common cause of cancer death after gastric cancer, and surgery was the only available treatment. Although a connection between smoking and lung cancer had been recognized by the German physician Fritz Lickint in 1929,1 it was not until the early 1950s, following the publication of 2 landmark studies from the United Kingdom and the United States, that cigarette smoking was identified as an important facto...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Preface Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The percentage of B-T cells in cancer patients was significantly higher than that of healthy donors. B-T cells maybe play a very complicated role in tumor, whether it could be a potential tumor immune marker or not and what are the specific phenotypes and functions of it to need be further verified. PMID: 32014490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
This study reviewed medical records of patients with gastric cancer who received XPT(capecitabine/cisplatin/trastuzumab) therapy containing cisplatin. Patients received either the conventional or short hydration regimen. Nephrotoxicity was compared between these two regimens by monitoring the serum creatinine. Out of the 26 total patients, 19 received the conventional regimen while 7 received the short hydration regimen. There was a higher nephrotoxicity was observed in the group receiving the conventional regimen (42.1%, 8/19) as compared to the short hydration regimen (0%, 0/7). There was a statistically significant diff...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Long non-coding RNA DLEU1 is likely to represent an available biomarker or a potential therapeutic target in multiple tumors. PMID: 31969095 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
This study provides strong evidence that following a healthy lifestyle can substantially extend the years a person lives disease-free." Commentary on Recent Evidence for Cognitive Decline to Precede Amyloid Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease I can't say that I think the data presented in the research noted here merits quite the degree of the attention that it has been given in the popular science press. It is interesting, but not compelling if its role...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract CD28H and B7-H5 have been identified as receptor-ligand pairs in B7/CD28 family, and have costimulatory activity in immune cells. Here, we have systematically reviewed the research reports on the CD28H/B7-H5 pathway. It was found that CD28H is mainly expressed in T cells and natural killer (NK) cells with naive and poorly differentiated properties, and repeated antigen stimulation leads to permanent loss of CD28H. In tumors, CD28H is mainly expressed in tissue-resident memory (TRM ) lymphocyte T cells, which is associated with improved tumor prognosis. B7-H5 is a ligand for CD28H and is widely expressed i...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research
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