Antibody Appears to Attack Cancer Cells, Leaving Other Cells Unscathed

Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email: sarah.avery@duke.edu https://www.dukehealth.org EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE until 12 p.m. noon (ET) on Thursday, May 5, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. -- A research team from Duke Health has developed an antibody from the body’s own immune system that preferentially attacks cancer cells. The antibody works by targeting a natural defense mechanism that cancer tumors exploit. Cells in the body essentially use a home security system that relies on certain proteins to protect the cell surface and keep it safe. These proteins help the cell avoid injury and even death from unwanted activation of the immune system. In a paper published online May 5 in Cell Reports, the Duke team describes the workings of a cancer-fighting antibody they discovered, developed and tested in cell lines and animal models. The antibody dismantles a specific part of a cancer cell’s defense system and then employs several mechanisms of attack. "This is the first completely human-derived antibody developed as an anti-cancer therapy, which is very different from other immunotherapy approaches,” said senior author Edward F. Patz, Jr., M.D., the James and Alice Chen Professor of Radiology and professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology at Duke. Patz and colleagues -- including principals from the Duke Human Vaccine Institute who have been advancing the development of antibodies for an HIV vaccine -- started with the observation that some lun...
Source: DukeHealth.org: Duke Health Features - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Duke Medicine Source Type: news

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Authors: Xiao B, Huang Z, Zhou R, Zhang J, Yu B Abstract BACKGROUND The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) is expressed in solid malignant tumors. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine whether expression of the lncRNA SNHG1 was associated with prognosis in patients with malignancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature review from Jan 1970 to July 2018 identified publications in the English language. Databases searched included: PubMed, OVID, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, Embase, EBSCO, Google Scholar. Systematic review and meta-analysis were per...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
anian Thomas Maeder The application of gas sensors in breath analysis is an important trend in the early diagnostics of different diseases including lung cancer, ulcers, and enteric infection. However, traditional methods of synthesis of metal oxide gas-sensing materials for semiconductor sensors based on wet sol-gel processes give relatively high sensitivity of the gas sensor to changing humidity. The sol-gel process leading to the formation of superficial hydroxyl groups on oxide particles is responsible for the strong response of the sensing material to this factor. In our work, we investigated the possibility to ...
Source: Sensors - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Abstract BMI-1 (B-lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1) is a key protein partner in polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) that helps in maintaining the integrity of the complex. It is also a key player in ubiquitination of histone H2A which affects gene expression pattern involved in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, growth, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence. In many cancers, Overexpression of BMI1correlates with advanced stages of disease, aggressive clinicopathological behavior, poor prognosis resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. BMI1 is emerging as a key player in EMT, chemo-resistance...
Source: Gene - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Gene Source Type: research
In this study, we found that miR-1284 was downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared to normal control cells. Moreover, we showed that overexpression of miR-1284 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells while promoting apoptosis. In terms of mechanism, we found that transcription factor ZIC2 was a target of miR-1284 in breast cancer cells. Through luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated their direct interaction. Besides, qRT-PCR and western blot also indicated that miR-1284 overexpression inhibited the protein levels of ZIC2 in breast cancer cells. More...
Source: Oncology Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Res Source Type: research
ConclusionsSNHG1 represents promising novel biomarkers for various cancer types and have a great potential to be effectively used in clinical practice in the near future.
Source: Pathology Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
We examined the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], and cancer survival in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Of 4616 cancer cases with measured serum 25(OH)D, 2884 died of their cancer during 28  years of follow-up and 1732 survived or died of other causes. Proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between pre-diagnostic 25(OH)D and overall and site-specific survival. Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower among cases who subsequently died from their malignancy compared with those...
Source: European Journal of Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: In total, DALYs 6 cancer diseases due to secondhand smoke analyzed in this study were 283,360 DALYs. Thus, the results of the research can be used as a basis for further policies making on national cigarette prevention and control in Indonesia. PMID: 30051678 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research
In conclusion, the organizations that most fund research to develop new drugs for cancer treatment continue to show little interest in prioritizing resources to fund research for certain types of cancer such as those of the cervix, stomach, and liver, which have a significant impact in low- and middle-income countries. PMID: 30057606 [PubMed]
Source: Journal of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Oncol Source Type: research
Abstract When a malignant fistula develops between esophagus and trachea, the underlying cancer is invariably incurable whether the primary site is in the esophagus or in the trachea. The frequent complication of this fistula is nonresolving aspiration pneumonia, either from ingestion or from backward flow of gastric contents into the esophagus. Pulmonary sepsis causes fatality in about 6 to 12 weeks if aspiration through the fistula is not treated quickly. The fistula develops in untreated esophageal cancer in approximately 5% to 15% of cases, lung cancer in less than 1% of cases, and tracheal cancer in 14.7...
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Thorac Surg Clin Source Type: research
When a malignant fistula develops between esophagus and trachea, the underlying cancer is invariably incurable whether the primary site is in the esophagus or in the trachea. The frequent complication of this fistula is nonresolving aspiration pneumonia, either from ingestion or from backward flow of gastric contents into the esophagus. Pulmonary sepsis causes fatality in about 6 to 12  weeks if aspiration through the fistula is not treated quickly. The fistula develops in untreated esophageal cancer in approximately 5% to 15% of cases, lung cancer in less than 1% of cases, and tracheal cancer in 14.75% of cases.
Source: Thoracic Surgery Clinics - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
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