Axonopathy in peripheral neuropathies: mechanisms and therapeutic approaches for regeneration

Publication date: Available online 2 May 2016 Source:Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy Author(s): Lila M. Landowski, Peter James B. Dyck, JaNean Engelstad, Bruce V. Taylor Peripheral neuropathies (PNs) are injuries or diseases of the nerves which arise from varied aetiology, including metabolic disease, trauma and drug toxicity. The clinical presentation depends on the type of neuropathy, and may include the loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions, or development of debilitating neuropathic pain distal to the injury site. It can be challenging to identify the aetiology of PNs, as the clinical syndromes are often indistinct. However, the mechanisms that underlie pathological changes in peripheral neuropathy are fundamentally different, depending on the trigger. This review focuses on the axonopathy observed in two frequently encountered forms of peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A key manifestation of axonopathy in PN is the degeneration of terminal arbors of peripheral nerves, resulting in a loss of epidermal nerve fibres and inappropriate termination of nerve endings. Many symptoms of PN arise from aberrant termination of nerve endings, and the underlying axonopathy may be non-reversible, as nerve regeneration after injury and disease is often poor, absent, or aberrant. Directed guidance of terminal arbors back into the epidermis is therefore a suggested approach to treat peripheral neuropathy. This review will outlin...
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Authors: Gudin J, Nalamachu S Abstract Interest in and use of topical analgesics has been increasing, presumably due to their potential utility for relief of acute and chronic pain. Topically applied agents with analgesic properties can target peripheral nociceptive pathways while minimizing absorption into the plasma that leads to potential systemic adverse effects.Clinical trials have found 5% lidocaine patches to be effective and well tolerated for the treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) with a minimal risk of toxicity or drug-drug interactions. With this patch formulation, the penetration of lidocaine in...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
The FDA recently approved the first generics of pregabalin for managing fibromyalgia, postherpetic neuralgia, neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy or spinal cord injury, and as adjunct therapy for partial-onset seizures in patients aged 17 years or older.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
On July 19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved multiple applications for first generics of Lyrica (pregabalin) for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, for the management of postherpetic neuralgia, as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial onset seizures in patients 17 years of age and older, for the management of fibromyalgia, and for the management of neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury.
Source: World Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured FDA Regulatory Affairs Source Type: news
This study investigated the effects of tanshinone IIA in DPNP model rats. We divided animals into two groups: 1) the model (diabetic) group and 2) the tanshinone II A-treatment group. Our results demonstrated that diabetic rats exhibited a decrease in the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL), and that NMT is increased and TWL is prolonged in rats treated with tanshinone II A. Additionally, the levels of ERS-signaling pathway factors in the spinal dorsal horns of rats were lower in the tanshinone IIA-treated group than in the diabetic group. Overall, our study demonstrated that the disi...
Source: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Diabetes grain-free low-carb Weight Loss wheat belly Source Type: blogs
I was in suburban Chicago recently one morning, hoping to get something to eat for breakfast. I’d heard that the Panera chain was now serving breakfast that you could order any way you wanted. It’s called “Panera Bread,” but I thought I’d give it a try, as I’ve safely consumed their salads in past. At the counter, I placed my order for 3 eggs over easy, sausage, and bacon—not perfect, given our inability to scrutinize foods and ingredients in such places, but I was willing to try. Obviously, I turned down the breads/toasts that were included. The middle-aged Hispanic woman behind t...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Wheat Belly diabetes grain-free grains Inflammation sugar undoctored Source Type: blogs
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common diabetic complications, affecting 25% of diabetic patients. Patients with DPN experience neuropathic pain and small fiber degeneration, which can progress to complete loss of peripheral sensory axons. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying nerve damage and sensory loss in DPN remains a major challenge and a lack of mechanistic understanding has long hampered effective therapy of DPN. Recently, we found that feeding mice with a high fat diet (HFD) over several weeks resulted in the precisely timed appearance of glucose intolerance together with the prima...
Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Tags: Neuro-Cutaneous Biology and Inflammation Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: These exploratory findings indicate that patients with NeP across different etiologies are medically complex and experience impaired function across multiple domains. PMID: 30662281 [PubMed]
Source: Pain Physician - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: J Pain Res Source Type: research
Conclusion: Evaluation of chronic pain patients in Brazil yielded a 14.5% probable NeP prevalence. NSAIDs and opioids were commonly used, and there was a high incidence of NeP-related symptoms with varying levels of dysfunction across subtypes. PMID: 30662280 [PubMed]
Source: Pain Physician - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: J Pain Res Source Type: research
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