What Causes Vomiting?
Discussion Regurgitation is a passive expulsion of ingested material out of the mouth. It is a normal part of digestion for ruminants such as cows and camels. Nausea is an unpleasant abdominal perception that the person may describe as feeling ill to the stomach, or feeling like he/she is going to vomit. Anorexia is frequently observed. Nausea is usually associated with decreased stomach activity and motility in the small intestine. Parasympathetic activity may be increased causing pale skin, sweating, hypersalivation and possible vasovagal syndrome (hypotension and bradycardia). Retching or dry heaves is when there are spasmodic respiratory movements against a closed glottis. This often occurs just before emesis. Emesis, vomiting or vomition is when stomach (sometimes small intestine also) contents are propelled up the esophagus and out the mouth. It is composed of three basic parts: A deep breath is taken, the glottis closed to prevent aspiration into the lungs, while the larynx is raised which helps to open the upper esophageal sphincter. There is a decrease in respiration. The soft palate also closes to try to protect the posterior nares. The pylorus also contracts. The diaphragm contracts downward sharply which creates negative thoracic pressures. This also assists the opening of the lower esophageal sphincter and the esophagus itself. As the diaphragm contracts, the abdominal wall muscles vigorously contract which increases the intragastric pressure. As the pylorus ...
Authors: Ridruejo E, Garcia-Agudo R, Mendizabal M, Aoufi-Rabih S, Dixit V, Silva M, Fabrizi F Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The advent of direct-acting antiviral agents promises to change the management of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a patient group in which the treatment of hepatitis C was historically challenging. We investigated the safety and efficacy of all-oral, interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C in a 'real-world' cohort of patients with CKD. METHODS: We performed an observational single-arm multi-centre stud...
Solid organ transplantation from hepatitis C virus–positive (HCV-positive) deceased donors into HCV-negative recipients is a recent approach aimed to expand the donor organ pool in the setting of severe shortage. Good short-term outcomes have been reported with this approach in combination with direct-acting antivirals. In this issue of the JCI, Zahid and colleagues have characterized early viral kinetics and the genetic landscape of donor-to-recipient HCV transmission using single-genome sequencing. In seven HCV-negative recipients of four HCV-positive donor organs, productive infection with a highly diverse viral p...
Highly effective direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) have created an opportunity to transplant organs from HCV-positive individuals into HCV-negative recipients, since de novo infection can be routinely cured. As this procedure is performed more widely, it becomes increasingly important to understand the biological underpinnings of virus transmission, especially the multiplicity of infection. Here, we used single genome sequencing of plasma virus in 4 genotype 1a HCV-positive organ donors and their 7 organ recipients to assess the genetic bottleneck associated with HCV transmission following renal and ...
(Oxford University Press USA) A new study soon to appear in the Faculty of Public Health's Journal of Public Health, published by Oxford University Press, suggests that air pollution and living in apartment buildings may be associated with an increased risk for dangerous conditions like heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. This paper is embargoed until midnight EST on June 25.
Contributors : Caiyan Zhang ; Yufeng ZhouSeries Type : Expression profiling by array ; Non-coding RNA profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensTo determine ceRNA transcribed during the PBMCs, we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify ceRNA expression in PBMCs donated by T1DM (type 1 diabetes mellitus) patients and healthy volunteers.
Contributors : Caiyan Zhang ; Yufeng ZhouSeries Type : Non-coding RNA profiling by arrayOrganism : Homo sapiensTo determine miRNA transcribed during the PBMCs, we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify miRNA expression in PBMCs donated by T1DM (type 1 diabetes mellitus) patients and healthy volunteers.
ConclusionsIn this large institutional analysis, while LG for GC was associated with DSS and DFS similar to those for OG overall, non-inferior LG-associated survival especially DSS was observed in some subgroups rarely investigated in prospective or randomized settings. There could still be biases even after PSM due to confounders not accounted for in this observational study. However, these findings offer novel hypotheses for further validation.
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There are several errors in the article Iwata M, Kondo I, Sato Y, Satoh K, Soma M, Bar-Or O. Prediction of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in hemiplegia by evaluation of hand edema, published in Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2002;83:1428-31 (https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2002.34830), Prediction of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in hemiplegia by evaluation of hand edema, contained several errors.
Conclusion: With the advancements in retinal imaging, atypical MHs are now more frequently recognized. With increasing understanding of the underlying disease processes, and improvement in investigations and surgical treatment, management of atypical MHs may improve in the future.
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