Talking Science: Facts About Vaccines and Herd Immunity

This week is World Immunization Week and what better way to commemorate it than by discussing the facts about vaccines and the importance of herd immunity. But first... What exactly IS a vaccine? A vaccine is a biological agent that stimulates a person's immune system to produce immunity to a specific pathogen, protecting the person from a disease. That's how vaccines work. You get an inactivated, attenuated, or a portion of the version of the pathogen you're hoping to avoid. According to the CDC, routine vaccines given to children in the last two decades will prevent hundreds of millions illnesses, tens of millions hospitalizations, and prevent over 700,000 deaths. And that's just in the U.S. Vaccinations became routine in the late 18th century, when Edward Jenner administered cowpox, which minimally affects humans, to an 8 year-old boy, so he could acquire immunity to the closely related smallpox virus, which is oftentimes deadly. After the success of the first vaccine, doctors sought to find immunizations for a multitude of common -- and deadly -- illnesses. V accines have been created for measles, typhoid, polio, mumps, cholera, influenza, HPV, meningitis, and smallpox just to name a few. What is "Herd Immunity"? Another important aspect of immunization is herd immunity. According to the NIH, herd or community immunity occurs "When a critical portion of a community is immunized against a contagious disease, most members of the community are protec...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: Jones E PMID: 32493743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Canadian Medical Association Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: CMAJ Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2020Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: BiointerfacesAuthor(s): Diksha Gupta, Aishwarya Gangwar, Kiran Jyoti, Vaskuri G.S. Sainaga Jyothi, Rupinder Kaur Sodhi, Neelesh Kumar Mehra, Shashi Bala Singh, Jitender Madan
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Authors: Xu J, Zhang M, Turk EA, Zhang L, Grant E, Ying K, Golland P, Adalsteinsson E Abstract The performance and diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pregnancy is fundamentally constrained by fetal motion. Motion of the fetus, which is unpredictable and rapid on the scale of conventional imaging times, limits the set of viable acquisition techniques to single-shot imaging with severe compromises in signal-to-noise ratio and diagnostic contrast, and frequently results in unacceptable image quality. Surprisingly little is known about the characteristics of fetal motion during MRI and here we pr...
Source: MICCAI International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - Category: Radiology Tags: Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv Source Type: research
Sweden seesthird consecutive day of over 1,000 new cases; virus ‘under control ’ in France; Brazil death toll passes Italy; New York urges protesters to get testedWHO changes advice to back medical-grade masks for over-60sEU pledges to lift internal border controls by end of monthThe first wave of Covid-19 is not over – but how might a second look?Coronavirus lates: at a glanceSee all our coronavirus coverage8.01pmBSTEstoniahas developed an app that could serve as a digital “immunity passport”, allowing users with antibodies to show employers and others their reduced risk of spreading coronavi...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World news Science Infectious diseases Australia news UK news US news Microbiology Medical research Source Type: news
Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version under study presented a different behavior from the original measurement tool, but proved to be a reliable and valid instrument in assessing the Brazilian population ’ s knowledge about HPV.RESUMO: Objetivo: Verificar a validade interna do construto da vers ão em português de uma ferramenta para aferir o conhecimento da população sobre o papilomavírus humano (HPV). Materiais e métodos: Uma versão brasileira transculturalmente adaptada de uma ferramenta de aferição de conhecimento sobre HPV originalmente projetad...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Over-60s should use medical-grade masks and all others three-layer fabric ones, health body saysCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coveragePeople over 60 or with health issues should wear a medical-grade mask when they are out and cannot socially distance, according to new guidance from the World Health Organization, while all others should wear a three-layer fabric mask.The announcement on Friday marks a significant change of stance by the WHO, which until now has been reluctant to advocate the wearing of masks by the public because of limited evidence that they offer protection.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World Health Organization UK news Infectious diseases Medical research Science Society World news Source Type: news
A top US health official cautioned on Thursday that protests sweeping across the country could increase the spread of the novel coronavirus, particularly in cities that have struggled to control the outbreak, and that participants should"highly consider" getting tested.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Critical Care Headlines - Category: Intensive Care Tags: Infectious Diseases News Source Type: news
Abstract Mental disorders (MD) are commonly comorbid with cardiovascular, metabolic, and some infectious diseases. Since the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemic is affecting the most multimorbid individuals, we might expect that the epidemic will be particularly problematic for people with MD. Understanding the burden of an outbreak on mental health is fundamental to effective action towards containing the spread of the disease, as psychopathology might reduce endurance during the lockdown. This can potentially reduce adhesion to ongoing treatment resulting in avoidable recurrence of a disorder. Additionally, there is the stress c...
Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
Resumo O Minist ério da Saúde, por intermédio da Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde e em parceria com a Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde construiu e implementou estratégias da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) no âmbito do apoio aos gestores locais e em articulação com o Conselho Nacional de Se cretários Estaduais (CONASS) e Municipais de Saúde (CONASEMS) para o combate ao COVID-19. Essas ações têm a APS como a grande responsável por diversas ár...
Source: Ciencia e Saude Coletiva - Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research
This study analyzes the influence of socio-environmental health determinants on the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria at the borders between French Guiana and Brazil. This study was carried out between 2011 and 2015 in the city of Oiapoque, Amap á, situated in the Brazilian Amazon region. The sample included 253 individuals of both sexes aged between 10 and 60 years. The disease was predominant in 63.64% (161/253) adult males. The most affected age group was 20 to 29 years old, with 30% (76/253). About 84.6% did not complete high school, w hile 29.6% (75/253) of the cases had not finished the first degree. Con...
Source: Saude e Sociedade - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
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