Why We Need New Antibiotics More Than Ever

This article was produced in partnership with Northeastern University and was originally published on Footnote, a website that brings academic research and ideas to a broader audience. A year ago, a group of scientists led by Dr. Kim Lewis, Director of the Antimicrobial Discovery Center at Northeastern University, announced a major breakthrough. They had identified a new antibiotic, teixobactin, capable of destroying several kinds of bacteria, including antibiotic-resistant strains of tuberculosis and staph (i.e. MRSA).1 Antibiotics are so familiar to us that the discovery of a new one may not seem particularly groundbreaking. Yet in reality, most antibiotics were identified over a half-century ago and new discoveries are quite rare. Teixobactin is actually "the first new antibiotic to be discovered in more than 25 years," according to the White House. After a "golden age" of discovery in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s, antibiotic development faltered.2,3 The drugs that were easiest to identify and cultivate (the "low-hanging fruit") had already been found, incentives in the scientific community steered research in other directions, and antibiotics were not seen as profitable by pharmaceutical companies.(a) MRSA bacteria Meanwhile, bacteria began to develop resistance to existing antibiotics. The dreaded MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) arose in hospitals and healthcare facilities, while overuse of antibiotics in livestock farmin...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news

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Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Enzyme and Microbial TechnologyAuthor(s): Babbal, Adivitiya, Shilpa Mohanty, Yogender Pal KhasaAbstractThe exploitation of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) fusion technology at a large scale for the production of therapeutic proteins with an authentic N-terminus is majorly limited due to the higher cost of ScUlp1 protease. Therefore, the cost-effective production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ulp1 protease catalytic domain (402-621 aa) was targeted via its cloning under strong T7 promoter with and without histidine tag. The optimization of cultivation condition...
Source: Enzyme and Microbial Technology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ivan Mrkić, Rajna Minić, Dragan Popović, Irena Živković, Marija Gavrović-JankulovićAbstractAimTo investigate the immunomodulatory potential of a chimera composed of the receptor-binding domain of hemagglutinin 1 (H1s) from Influenza virus and Der p 2 (D2) allergen for allergen-specific immunotherapy of house-dust mite allergy (HDM).Main methodsH1sD2 chimera and D2 allergen were produced by genetic engineering in E. coli. Recombinant antigens were extracted from inclusion bodies by urea, then refolded and purified by immobilized- metal ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: American Journal of Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Soham Gupta, Alexander P. Cole, Maya Marchese, Ye Wang, Jacqueline M. Speed, Sean A. Fletcher, Junaid Nabi, Sebastian Berg, Stuart R. Lipsitz, Toni K. Choueiri, Steven L. Chang, Adam S. Kibel, Annemarie Uhlig, Quoc-Dien TrinhIntroductionWith improvements in early detection and treatment, a growing proportion of the population now lives with a personal history of a cancer. Although many cancer survivors are in excellent health, the underlying risk factors and side effects of cancer treatment increase the risk of medic...
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: November–December 2018Source: Spine Deformity, Volume 6, Issue 6Author(s): Jamal N. Shillingford, Joseph L. Laratta, Hemant Reddy, Alex Ha, Ronald A. Lehman, Lawrence G. Lenke, Charla R. FischerStudy DesignRetrospective review of prospectively collected data.ObjectiveAnalyze the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Morbidity &Mortality (M&M) database to assess the incidence and characteristics related to postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) after spinal deformity surgery.Summary of Background DataInfections involving spinal instrumentation are associated with greater rates of disability. Rate...
Source: Spine Deformity - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
ConclusionsAdministration of preoperative antibiotics closer to the time of surgery may reduce the risk of SSI in children undergoing VEPTR surgery. Further study is needed to determine the optimal timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for children undergoing spinal surgery.Level of EvidenceLevel III.
Source: Spine Deformity - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
ConclusionsUsing accepted guidelines for the administration of intravenous vancomycin preoperatively, serum levels reached MIC at incision and at all timepoints tested during PSF for neuromuscular scoliosis. At no timepoint tested did muscle levels reach MIC.Level of EvidenceLevel II.
Source: Spine Deformity - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Ocular tuberculosis can be associated with Eales disease and often manifest later in the course of the disease. PMID: 30339475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
In this study, a novel chemically-cross-linked antibacterial porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM) scaffold was fabricated according to a two-step method. A naturally-derived oxidized chitosan oligosaccharide (OCOS) was used to cross-linked pADM (termed OCOS-pADM) to improve its physicochemical properties. Residual aldehyde groups within the OCOS-pADM were used in a redox reaction with Ag ions to produce Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ. As the AgNPs were tightly adhered onto the scaffold fibrils (termed OCOS-AgNPs-pADM), this effectively functionalized scaffold with antibacterial properties. The generated AgNPs were char...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
What do measles, tuberculosis, and grains have in common? For that matter, what do anthrax, influenza, and brucellosis also share in common with grains? All the conditions listed are examples of zoonoses, i.e., diseases contracted by humans from animals. When humans first invited domesticated grazing creatures–cows, sheep, goats–into our huts, adobe homes, or caves, often sleeping in the same room, using them for milk or food, we acquired many of their diseases. These diseases were unknown prior to the human domestication of grazing ruminants. The process of animal domestication changed the course of human civi...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: News & Updates gluten gluten-free grain-free grains tuberculosis wheat belly zoonoses Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2018Source: Food ChemistryAuthor(s): Raquel Requena, María Vargas, Amparo ChiraltAbstractThe antibacterial effect of PHBV films with oregano or clove essential oil, or their main compounds, carvacrol (CA) and eugenol (EU), respectively, was analysed in food matrices (cheese, chicken breast and pumpkin and melon) and in vitro test for Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. The migration of CA and EU in the different food matrices was determined to analyse the food matrix effect on the film’s antimicrobial effectiveness. The antimicrobial activity in foods was less r...
Source: Food Chemistry - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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