Hacking Gut Bacteria Could Be The Future Of Medicine

The human gut microbiome -- which includes the community of trillions of bacteria living within our intestines -- has been called one of the next big frontiers in medicine.  In recent years, a growing body of research has shown that the bacteria in our gut exert a powerful influence on our immune and endocrine systems, brain health, mood and cognitive function, and other key biological processes. We know that the balance of good and bad bacteria in the gut can keep us healthy -- or can contribute to disease. Now, the next step for this exciting medical frontier is learning how to leverage the power of the microbiome to treat disease.  In new research, biologists and medical engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are doing just that by reprogramming gut bacteria to act as "living therapeutics" that can correct the metabolic dysfunctions underlying certain ailments. "It's become really clear that the bacteria living in us and on us affect our bodies in a variety of different ways -- in ways that we never imagined," Dr. Timothy Lu, a biological engineer at MIT, told The Huffington Post. "The old idea that people are just people and that everything that happens in our bodies is dictated by human cells and DNA is probably not the complete picture."  At the MIT offshoot biopharmaceutical lab Synlogic, which Lu co-founded, scientists are working to create a new class of medications called &quo...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Conclusions: Between 2007 and 2010, endoscopic monitoring of patients within the first year after CD-related surgery was less than adequate based on current standards, but showed improvement. Medication changes were in general agreement with current guideline recommendations. This work was presented as a poster (number P686) by M. Barreiro-de Acosta et al. at ECCO (European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation) '18 in Vienna, Austria, 14-17 February 2018. PMID: 31203691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Source Type: research
Conclusions: IBD causes a significant burden to the Finnish healthcare system. This study provides a detailed characterization of the cost landscape of IBD and contributes to optimizing treatment strategies and healthcare resource use in the biosimilar era. PMID: 31203693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Conclusion: Vascular abnormalities of the liver were commonly observed in thioguanine treated IBD patients, although these were not progressive and remained of limited clinical relevance over time. PMID: 31203688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn summary, our data suggest that microbial antigens may affect NMOSD outcomes by favoring an imbalance between Th17 and TFH-like cells and regulatory T cell subsets.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 June 2019Source: Brain, Behavior, and ImmunityAuthor(s): Roman Fischer, Tanja Padutsch, Valerie Bracchi-Ricard, Kayla L. Murphy, George.F. Martinez, Niky Delguercio, Nicholas Elmer, Maksim Sendetski, Ricarda Diem, Ulrich L.M. Eisel, Richard J. Smeyne, Roland E. Kontermann, Klaus Pfizenmaier, John R. BetheaAbstractTumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is a transmembrane receptor that promotes immune modulation and tissue regeneration and is recognized as a potential therapeutic target for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, TNFR2 also contributes to T effector cell function and macroph...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
ConclusionsCampylobacter jejuni ST50, ST51 and ST257 are among the top ten of STs isolated in Europe. WGS revealed diversity of serotypes and LOS classes in ST50 strains, that deserves further clinical and epidemiological investigations as it might be related to a risk of post-infectious neurological sequels such as Guillain-Barr é syndrome. Additionally, the results implicate lower pathogenic potential and distinct transmission chains or reservoirs forC. jejuni ST51 isolates responsible for campylobacteriosis in northeastern Poland.
Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Antimicrobial resistance was determined for 341 thermophilic Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from human clinical cases (n = 101), broiler products (n = 98), dairy cattle (n = 41) and wild birds (n = 101) with known multilocus sequence types (MLST) in Lithuania. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamycin, ceftriaxone and erythromycin were determined with the agar dilution method. MIC values were compared with MLST types to find possible associations among isolation source, sequence type and resistance to antibiotics. The proportions of resistant strains were 94.2% (h...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we used the AOM/DSS-induced CAC mice model to explore the miRNAs that were aberrantly expressed. As a result, we found that miR-31-5p, miR-223-3p, and let-7f-5p were dysregulated during the intestinal atypical hyperplasia. Subsequently, we first identified the role of these three miRNAs in CAC. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was revealed a new target of miR-223-3p, while solute carrier family 9- subfamily A-member 9 (SLC9A9) and APC membrane recruitment protein 3 (AMER3) were two new targets for let-7f-5p. For miR-31-5p, we proved that it can target LATS2 mRNA so as to modulate Hippo pathway in Caco2 cells...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The varied pharmacologic mechanisms of NBP involve many complex molecular mechanisms; however, there many unknown pharmacologic effects await further study. PMID: 31205106 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
Source: Infection and Drug Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infection and Drug Resistance Source Type: research
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