Vitamin D and cancer: does it really matter?

This article provides a background for an evidence-based decision regarding the prescription of vitamin D for cancer prevention and improvement of outcomes in oncology. Recent findings: In 2014, Feldman and colleagues published a review suggesting a beneficial role for vitamin D in cancer development. In the same year, a Cochrane meta-analysis that included 18 randomized clinical trials comparing vitamin D administration versus no intervention in healthy population found no difference regarding cancer incidence between the groups. One year later, a phase III trial published in the New England Journal of Medicine did not show any protective effect of vitamin D against adenoma development. Summary: Vitamin D is well known for its importance in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, being essential for bone mineralization. However, calcitriol, or 1,25-dyhydroxy-vitamin D3, is a multifunctional steroid hormone with many extra skeletal actions and may regulate signaling pathways related to cancer development and progression. In preclinical studies, it was shown that vitamin D can promote cell differentiation and inhibit proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell migration. Inconsistent results are found in epidemiological studies and early trials regarding clinical effects of vitamin D supplementation and cancer in terms of prevention and impact in cancer-related mortality.
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Jr Source Type: research

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This article describes ossification of the corresponding vascular pedicle after soft tissue transfer with the lateral upper arm free flap and microsurgical anastomosis in oral cancer treatment. Similar findings in the context of the lateral upper arm free flap have never been reported in the literature; however, it is important for surgeons to know that pedicle ossification can occur. This knowledge may be helpful to avoid erroneous diagnosis of the ossification as a sign of tumor relapse/recurrence as well as to anticipate potential difficulties in the surgical approach in cases requiring reentry of the reconstructed regi...
Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery - Category: Cosmetic Surgery Tags: Microsurgery Source Type: research
Cancer immunotherapy and its budding effectiveness at improving patient outcomes has revitalized our hope to fight cancer in a logical and safe manner. Immunotherapeutic approaches to reengage the immune system have largely focused on reversing immune checkpoint inhibitor pathways, which suppress the antitumor response. Although these approaches have generated much excitement, they still lack absolute success. Interestingly, newly described host-tumor sugar chains (glycosylations) and glycosylation-binding proteins (lectins) play key roles in evading the immune system to determine cancer progression. In this issue of the J...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), although promising, have variable benefit in head and neck cancer (HNC). We noted that tumor galectin-1 (Gal1) levels were inversely correlated with treatment response and survival in patients with HNC who were treated with ICIs. Using multiple HNC mouse models, we show that tumor-secreted Gal1 mediates immune evasion by preventing T cell migration into the tumor. Mechanistically, Gal1 reprograms the tumor endothelium to upregulate cell-surface programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and galectin-9. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that Gal1 blockade increases intratumora...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: The complete response observed here illustrate the role of molecular profiling in complicate clinical situation of rare head and neck cancer and the potential benefit of BRAF-targeted therapy in ameloblastoma carrying BRAF V600E mutation.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
All individuals presenting with an extratympanic paraganglioma of the head and neck should undergo genetic testing.
Source: ENTtoday - TRIO Best Practices - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Tags: Head and Neck Practice Focus TRIO Best Practices clinical best practices genetic testing head and neck cancer paragangliomas Source Type: research
Authors: Tribius S, Würdemann N, Laban S, Hoffmann TK, Sharma SJ, Klussmann JP Abstract At this year's Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the keyword search "HPV-associated head and neck cancer" resulted in 920 hits-74% of the hits on human papillomavirus (HPV). This underlines the relevance of the topic. The spectrum ranged from validation and separation of the prognostic groups of patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPSCC) according to TNM 8, to the characterization of new tumor markers and tumor mutational burden for possible de-escalation s...
Source: HNO - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: HNO Source Type: research
Source: Cancer Management and Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Cancer Management and Research Source Type: research
British Journal of Cancer, Published online: 11 November 2019; doi:10.1038/s41416-019-0602-7Human papillomavirus as a driver of head and neck cancers
Source: British Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere is a need for novel ways to prepare patients for HNC surgery and to support them in recovery, including ways to connect and help patients feel human again.
Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Lee Fah Yap Ian C. Paterson Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and includes squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx and oral cavity. Patient prognosis has remained poor for decades and molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use. Here we showed that the overall expression of collagen subunit genes was higher in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) than normal fibroblasts. Focusing on collagen8A1 and collagen11A1, we showed that collagen is produced by both CAFs and tumour cells, indicating that HNSCCs are collagen-rich environments. We then focused on ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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