Intraflagellar transport proteins 172, 80, 57, 54, 38, and 20 form a stable tubulin-binding IFT-B2 complex
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) relies on the IFT complex and is required for ciliogenesis. The IFT-B complex consists of 9–10 stably associated core subunits and six "peripheral" subunits that were shown to dissociate from the core structure at moderate salt concentration. We purified the six "peripheral" IFT-B subunits of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as recombinant proteins and show that they form a stable complex independently of the IFT-B core. We suggest a nomenclature of IFT-B1 (core) and IFT-B2 (peripheral) for the two IFT-B subcomplexes. We demonstrate that IFT88, together with the N-terminal domain of IFT52, is necessary to bridge the interaction between IFT-B1 and B2. The crystal structure of IFT52N reveals highly conserved residues critical for IFT-B1/IFT-B2 complex formation. Furthermore, we show that of the three IFT-B2 subunits containing a calponin homology (CH) domain (IFT38, 54, and 57), only IFT54 binds αβ-tubulin as a potential IFT cargo, whereas the CH domains of IFT38 and IFT57 mediate the interaction with IFT80 and IFT172, respectively. Crystal structures of IFT54 CH domains reveal that tubulin binding is mediated by basic surface-exposed residues.
Conclusions: Smoking and substance abuse are common among industrial workers. Tramadol and cannabis are the most commonly abused substances. Smoking, older age, and male sex are correlates of substance abuse. Alcohol abuse is associated with dependence.
This study aimed to understand family communication and overall well-being of young adults in the context of familial opioid misuse using the family systems framework. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed-methods, online survey of young adults aged 18 to 30 years (n=137) was conducted. A cluster analysis was performed based on family organization and structural characteristics. MANCOVA was utilized to compare groups identified using the cluster analysis in terms of (1) family’s belief about opioid misuse, (2) worry regarding opioid misuse, (3) family communication, and (4) overall well-being of young adults. Results...
Background and Aim: Controlling the symptoms of opioid withdrawal syndrome is important for the treatment of opioid addiction. There is very limited evidence on the effectiveness of pregabalin on opioid withdrawal syndrome. The present study examines the effectiveness of pregabalin in reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms. Methods: This double-blind clinical-trial was conducted on noninjecting opioid users diagnosed with opioid dependence and referred to the Addiction Treatment Center of Khorshid Hospital in Isfahan, Iran, in 2015 and 2016. The patients were divided into intervention and control groups, and both groups ...
This article reports an integrative review of seven trials carried out from 2007 to 2016, investigating the use of TMS on subjects abusing cocaine. The analysis was categorized into 5 different topics (1) area of intervention; (2) hemisphere; (3) number of pulses and intensity; (4) safety and adverse effects; and (5) other outcomes. Most of the trials found promising results of craving and/or use reduction with repetitive TMS (rTMS). Future interventions should consider the use of TMS as part of rehabilitation therapies.
Conclusions: The data were collected from school students. The statistical analysis of the Arabic version of game addiction scale for adolescents showed that the Arabic/English validity was satisfactory, with proper internal consistency and reliability.
Conclusions: These findings show that in Brazil problems related to alcohol use by the elderly remain relatively unknown. There was a high heterogeneity of methodologies in the studies, making it difficult to summarize the findings and produce prevalence estimates for the different patterns of consumption. More homogenous studies using similar definitions of patterns of alcohol consumption are required to allow comparisons to be made between different Brazilian regions and other countries.
Conclusions: A change was detected in the profile of treatment-seeking crack cocaine users over the past 2 decades. Current patients appear to be older and use the drug more chronically, in addition to having a higher level of schooling and lower unemployment rates when compared with 1997 users.
Objectives: For patients with opioid addiction seeking treatment, an effective option is Medication-assisted Treatment (MAT). In Albuquerque, the city with the greatest number of people who use opioids in New Mexico, the demand for MAT exceeds the number of patients receiving treatment. The authors hypothesized that a primary factor in patients’ ability to access treatment is clinic payment options, rather than the traditionally cited availability of providers. Methods: The authors conducted a survey assessing payment methods and corresponding availability in MAT programs for 53 of Albuquerque’s ~70 provid...
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: The Lancet PsychiatryAuthor(s): Laura E Fischer
Authors: Tikka DL, Singh AR, Tikka SK PMID: 31734494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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